Updated: Monday January 26, 2015/AlEthnien Rabi' Thani 06, 1436/Somavara Magha 06, 1936, at 08:13:22 PM

The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, 1968

8 November, 1968

 

Article 1. Definitions

For the purpose of this Convention the following expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them:

    (a) The “domestic legislation” of a Contracting Party means the entire body of national or local laws and regulations in force in the territory of that Contracting Party;

   
(b) A vehicle is said to be “in international traffic” in the territory of a State if:

             (i) It is owned by a natural or legal person normally resident outside that State;

             (ii) It is not registered in that State; and

      (iii) It is temporarily imported into that State;

provided, however, that a Contracting Party may refuse to regard as being “in international traffic” a vehicle which has remained in its territory for more than one year without a substantial interruption, the duration of which may be fixed by that Contracting Party.

A combination of vehicles is said to be “in international traffic” if at least one of the vehicles in the combination conforms to the above definition;

    (c) “Built-up area” means an area with entries and exits specially signposted as such, or otherwise defined in domestic legislation;

    (d) “Road” means the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic;

    (e) “Carriageway” means the part of a road normally used by vehicular traffic; a road may comprise several carriageways clearly separated from one another by, for example, a dividing strip or a difference of level;

    (f) On carriageways where one or more side lanes or tracks are reserved for use by certain vehicles, “edge of the carriageway” means, for other road-users, the edge of the remainder of the carriageway;

    (g) “Lane” means any one of the longitudinal strips into which the carriageway is divisible, whether or not defined by longitudinal road markings, which is wide enough for one moving line of motor vehicles other than motorcycles;

    (g) bis “Cycle lane” means a part of a carriageway designated for cycles. A cycle lane is distinguished from the rest of the carriageway by longitudinal road markings;

    (g) ter “Cycle track” means an independent road or part of a road designated for cycles, signposted as such. A cycle track is separated from other roads or other parts of the same road by structural means;

    (h) “Intersection” means any level crossroad, junction or fork, including the open areas formed by such crossroads, junctions or forks; -------------------------------------

    (i) “Level-crossing” means any level intersection between a road and a railway or tramway track with its own track formation;

   
(j) “Motorway” means a road specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which:

            
(i) Is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each
                 other either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means;
            (ii) Does not cross at level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; and
          
 (iii) Is specially signposted as a motorway;

   
(k) A vehicle is said to be:

            
(i) “Standing” if it is stationary for the time needed to pick up or set down persons or to load or unload goods; and
            
(ii) “Parked” if it is stationary for any reason other than the need to avoid interference with another road-user or collision with an
                  obstruction or to comply with traffic regulations, and if the period during which the vehicle is stationary is not limited to the time needed
                  to pick up or set down persons or goods;

Nevertheless, it shall be open to Contracting Parties to regard as “standing” any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (ii) above for a period not exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation, and to regard as “parked” any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (i) above for a period exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation;

(l) “Cycle” means any vehicle which has at least two wheels and is propelled solely by the muscular energy of the persons on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals or handcranks

   
(m) “Moped” means any two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicle which is fitted with an internal combustion engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cc and a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km (30 miles) per hour. Contracting Parties are free, however, not to regard as mopeds, under their domestic legislation, vehicles which do not have the characteristics of a cycle with respect to their use, in particular the characteristic that they can be propelled by pedals, or whose maximum design speed, whose mass, or certain of whose engine characteristics exceed certain limits. Nothing in this definition shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties from treating mopeds exactly as cycles in applying the provisions of their domestic legislation regarding road traffic;

   
(n) “Motorcycle” means any two-wheeled vehicle, with or without a side-car, which is equipped with a propelling engine. Contracting Parties may also treat as motorcycles in their domestic legislation three-wheeled vehicles whose unladen mass does not exceed 400 kg. The term “motorcycle” does not include mopeds, although Contracting Parties may, provided they make a declaration to this effect in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention, treat mopeds as motorcycles for the purposes of the Convention;

   
(o) “Power-driven vehicle” means any self-propelled road vehicle, other than a moped in the territories of Contracting Parties which do not treat mopeds as motorcycles, and other than a rail-borne vehicle;

   
(p) “Motor vehicle” means any power-driven vehicle which is normally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods. This term embraces trolley-buses, that is to say, vehicles connected to an electric conductor and not rail-borne. It does not cover vehicles, such as agricultural tractors, which are only incidentally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods;

  
 (q) “Trailer” means any vehicle designed to be drawn by a power-driven vehicle and includes semi-trailers;

   
(r) “Semi-trailer” means any trailer designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that part of it rests on the motor vehicle and that a substantial part of its mass and of the mass of its load is borne by the motor vehicle;

   
(s) “Light trailer” means any trailer of a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 750 kg;

   
(t) “Combination of vehicles” means coupled vehicles which travel on the road as a unit;

  
 (u) “Articulated vehicle” means a combination of vehicles comprising a motor vehicle and semi-trailer coupled to the motor vehicle;

   
(v) “Driver” means any person who drives a motor vehicle or other vehicle (including a cycle), or who guides cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, or draught, pack or saddle animals on a road;

   
(w) “Permissible maximum mass” means the maximum mass of the laden vehicle declared permissible by the competent authority of the State in which the vehicle is registered;

  
 (x) “Unladen mass” means the mass of the vehicle without crew, passengers or load, but with a full supply of fuel and with the tools which the vehicle normally carries;

   
(y) “Laden mass” means the actual mass of the vehicle as loaded, with the crew and passengers on board;

  
 (z) “Direction of traffic” and “appropriate to the direction of traffic” mean the right-hand side if, under domestic legislation, the driver of a vehicle must allow an oncoming vehicle to pass on his left; otherwise these expressions mean the left-hand side;

  
 (aa) The requirement that a driver shall “give way” to other vehicles means that he must not continue or resume his advance or manoeuvre if by so doing he might compel the drivers of other vehicles to change the direction or speed of their vehicle abruptly.


Article 5. Status of Signs and Signals

1. Road-users shall comply with the instructions conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings even if the said instructions appear to contradict other traffic regulations.

2. Instructions conveyed by traffic light signals shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs regulating

 

Article 6. Instructions Given by Authorized Officials

 1. When they are directing traffic, authorized officials shall be easily identifiable at a distance, at night as well as by day.

 2. Road-users shall promptly obey all instructions given by authorized officials directing traffic.

 3. It is recommended: that domestic legislation should provide that directions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall include the following:

     (a) Arm raised upright; this gesture shall mean “attention, stop” for all road-users except drivers who are no longer able to stop with sufficient safety; further, if made at an intersection, this gesture shall not require drivers already on the intersection to stop;
     (b) Arm or arms outstretched horizontally; this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for all road-users approaching from any direction which would cut across that indicated by the outstretched arm or arms; after making this gesture, the authorized official directing traffic may lower his arm or arms; this gesture shall likewise constitute a stop signal for drivers in front of or behind the official;
      (c) Swinging red light; this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for road-users towards whom the light is directed.

 4. The instructions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings, and over traffic regulations.


Article 7. General rules

1. Road-users shall avoid any behaviour likely to endanger or obstruct traffic, to endanger persons, or to cause damage to public or private property.

2. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that road-users shall not obstruct traffic or risk making it dangerous by throwing, depositing or leaving any object or substance on the road or by creating any other obstruction on the road. If road-users have been unable to avoid creating an obstruction or danger in that way, they shall take the necessary steps to remove it as soon as possible and, if they cannot remove it immediately, to warn other road-users of its presence.

3. Drivers shall show extra care in relation to the most vulnerable road-users, such as pedestrians and cyclists and in particular children, elderly persons and the disabled.

4. Drivers shall take care that their vehicles do not inconvenience road-users or the occupants of properties bordering on the road, for example, by causing noise or raising dust or smoke where they can avoid doing so.

5. The wearing of safety belts is compulsory for drivers and passengers of motor vehicles, occupying seats equipped with such belts, save where exceptions are granted by domestic legislation


Article 8. Drivers

1. Every moving vehicle or combination of vehicles shall have a driver.

2. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that pack, draught or saddle animals, and, except in such special areas as may be marked at the entry, cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, shall have a driver.

3. Every driver shall possess the necessary physical and mental ability and be in a fit physical and mental condition to drive.

4. Every driver of a power-driven vehicle shall possess the knowledge and skill necessary for driving the vehicle; however, this requirement shall not be a bar to driving practice by learnerdrivers in conformity with domestic legislation.

5. Every driver shall at all times be able to control his vehicle or to guide his animals.

6. A driver of a vehicle shall at all times minimize any activity other than driving. Domestic legislation should lay down rules on the use of phones by drivers of vehicles. In any case, legislation shall prohibit the use by a driver of a motor vehicle or moped of a hand-held phone while the vehicle is in motion.



Article 9. Flocks and Herds

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that, save where exceptions are granted to facilitate their mass movement, flocks and herds should be divided into sections of moderate length spaced sufficiently far apart for the convenience of traffic.


Article 10. Position on the Carriageway

1. The direction of traffic shall be the same on all roads in a State except, where appropriate, on the roads used solely or principally by through traffic between two other States.

2. Animals moving along the carriageway shall be kept as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic.

3. Without prejudice to the provisions to the contrary of Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 6, and to other provisions of this Convention to the contrary, every driver of a vehicle shall, to the extent permitted by circumstances, keep his vehicle near the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down more precise rules concerning the position of goods vehicles on the carriageway.

4. Where a road comprises two or three carriageways, no driver shall take the carriageway situated on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic.

5. (a) On two-way carriageways having four or more lanes, no driver shall take the lanes situated entirely on the half of the carriageway opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic.
    (b) On two-way carriageways having three lanes, no driver shall take the lane situated at the edge of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic.

6. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 11 and when an additional lane is indicated by a sign, drivers of vehicles moving slowly shall use that lane.



Article 11. Overtaking and Movement of Traffic in Lines

1. (a) Drivers overtaking shall do so on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic.
    (b) However drivers shall overtake on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic if the driver to be overtaken has signalled his intention to turn to the side of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic and has moved his vehicle or animals over towards that side in order to turn to that side for the purpose of taking another road, to enter a property bordering on the road, or to stop on that side.
    (c) Domestic legislation may authorize cyclists and moped riders to pass stationary vehicles or vehicles moving at a low speed other than cycles or mopeds on the side which corresponds to the direction of traffic provided that sufficient space is available.

2. Before overtaking, every driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7,paragraph 1, or to those of Article 14, of this Convention, make sure:
    (a) That no driver who is following him has begun to overtake him;
    (b) That the driver ahead of him in the same lane has not given warning of his intention to overtake another;
    (c) That he can do it without endangering or interfering with the oncoming traffic making sure in particular that the lane which he will enter is free over a sufficient distance and that the relative speed of the two vehicles allows overtaking within a sufficiently short time; and
    (d) That, except when using a lane closed to oncoming traffic, he will be able, without inconvenience to the road-user or road-users overtaken, to resume the position prescribed in Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention.

3. In pursuance of the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, overtaking on two-way carriageways is in particular prohibited when approaching the crest of a hill and, if visibility is inadequate, on bends, unless there are at these points lanes defined by longitudinal road markings and overtaking is carried out without leaving the lanes marked as closed to oncoming traffic.

4. When overtaking, a driver shall give the road-user or road-users overtaken a sufficiently wide berth.

5. (a) On carriageways with at least two lanes reserved for traffic moving in the direction in which he is proceeding, a driver who should be obliged, immediately or shortly after moving back to the position prescribed by Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention, to overtake again may, in order to perform that manoeuvre, and provided he makes sure he can do so without undue inconvenience to the drivers of faster vehicles approaching from behind, remain in the lane he has occupied for the first overtaking manoeuvre.
    (b) However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to apply the provisions of this paragraph to the drivers of cycles, mopeds, motorcycles and vehicles which are not motor vehicles within the meaning of this Convention, or to the drivers of motor vehicles whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 3,500 kg or whose maximum speed, by design, cannot exceed 40 km (25 miles) per hour.

6. Where the provisions of subparagraph 5 (a) of this Article are applicable and the density of traffic is such that vehicles not only occupy the entire width of the carriageway reserved for traffic taking the direction in which they are moving but also are moving only at a speed which is governed by that of the vehicle preceding them in the line:
     (a) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the movement of the vehicles in one line at a higher speed than that of those in another shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Article;
     (b) A driver not in the lane nearest to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic may change lanes only in order to prepare to turn right or left or to park; however, this requirement shall not apply to changes of lane effected by drivers in accordance with domestic legislation resulting from the application of the provisions of paragraph 5 (b) of this Article.

7. When moving in lines as described in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this Article, drivers are forbidden, if the lanes are indicated on the carriageway by longitudinal markings, to straddle these markings.

8. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article and to other restrictions which Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down concerning overtaking at intersections and at level-crossings, no driver of a vehicle shall overtake a vehicle other than a two-wheeled cycle, a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car:
      (a) Immediately before or on an intersection other than a roundabout, except:
                 (i) In the case provided for in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article;
                 (ii) Where the road on which overtaking takes place has priority at the intersection;
                 (iii) Where traffic is directed at the intersection by an authorized official or by traffic light signals;
      (b) Immediately before or on a level-crossing not equipped with gates or half-gates, provided however that Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free to permit such overtaking at a level-crossing where road traffic is regulated by traffic light signals incorporating a positive signal authorizing vehicles to proceed.

9. A vehicle shall not overtake another vehicle which is approaching a pedestrian crossing marked on the carriageway or signposted as such, or which is stopped immediately before the crossing, otherwise than at a speed low enough to enable it to stop immediately if a pedestrian is on the crossing. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from prohibiting overtaking within a prescribed distance from a pedestrian crossing, or from imposing stricter requirements on a driver of a vehicle proposing to overtake another vehicle stopped immediately before such a crossing.

10. A driver who perceives that a driver following him wishes to overtake him shall, except in the case provided for in Article 16, paragraph 1 (b) of this Convention, keep close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic and refrain from accelerating. If, owing to the narrowness, profile or condition of the carriageway, taken in conjunction with the density of oncoming traffic, a vehicle which is slow or bulky or is required to observe a speed limit cannot be easily and safely overtaken, the driver of such vehicle shall slow down and if necessary pull in to the side as soon as possible in order to allow vehicles following him to overtake.

11. (a) Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may, on one-way carriageways and on two-way carriageways where at least two lanes in built-up areas and three lanes outside built-up areas are reserved for traffic in the same direction and are indicated by longitudinal markings:
                  (i) Allow vehicles in one lane to overtake on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic vehicles in another lane; and
                  (ii) Make inapplicable the provisions of Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention;
provided that there are adequate restrictions on the possibility of changing lanes;

     (b) In the case referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the manner of driving provided for shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Convention.


Article 12. Passing of Oncoming Traffic

1. When passing oncoming traffic, a driver shall leave sufficient lateral space and, if necessary, move close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. If in so doing he finds his progress impeded by an obstruction or by the presence of other road-users, he shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow the oncoming road-user or road-users to pass.

2. On mountain roads and steep roads with characteristics similar to those of mountain roads, where the passing of oncoming traffic is impossible or difficult, it is the driver of the vehicle travelling downhill who should pull in to the side of the road in order to allow any vehicle proceeding uphill to pass, except where the arrangement of lay-bys to enable vehicles to pull in to the side of the road is such that, having regard to the speed and position of the vehicles, the vehicle proceeding uphill has a lay-by ahead of it and the need for one of the vehicles to reverse could be avoided if the vehicle proceeding uphill pulled in to that lay-by. Where one of the two vehicles which are about to pass is obliged to reverse in order to make passing possible, this manoeuvre shall be performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding downhill unless it can manifestly be more easily performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding uphill. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may prescribe for certain vehicles or certain roads or sections of roads special rules differing from those laid down in this paragraph.

Article 13. Speed and Distance Between Vehicles

1. Every driver of a vehicle shall in all circumstances have his vehicle under control so as to be able to exercise due and proper care and to be at all times in a position to perform all manoeuvres required of him. He shall, when adjusting the speed of his vehicle, pay constant regard to the circumstances, in particular the lie of the land, the state of the road, the condition and load of his vehicle, the weather conditions and the density of traffic, so as to be able to stop his vehicle within his range of forward vision and short of any foreseeable obstruction. He shall slow down and if necessary stop whenever circumstances so require, and particularly when visibility is not good.

2. Domestic legislation shall establish maximum speed limits for all roads. Domestic legislation shall also determine special speed limits applicable to certain categories of vehicles presenting a special danger, in particular by reason of their mass or their load. They may establish similar provisions for certain categories of drivers, in particular for new drivers.

3. The provisions set out in the first sentence of paragraph 2 may not apply to drivers of priority vehicles referred to in Article 34, paragraph 2, or vehicles treated as such in domestic legislation.

4. No driver shall impede the normal progress of other vehicles by travelling abnormally slowly without proper cause.

5. The driver of a vehicle moving behind another vehicle shall keep at a sufficient distance from that other vehicle to avoid collision if the vehicle in front should suddenly slow down or stop.

6. Outside built-up areas, in order to facilitate overtaking, drivers of vehicles or combinations of vehicles of more than 3,500 kg permissible maximum mass, or of more than 10 m overall length, shall, except when they are overtaking or preparing to overtake, keep at such distance from power-driven vehicles ahead of them that other vehicles overtaking them can without danger move into the space in front of the overtaken vehicle. However, this provision shall not apply in very dense traffic or in circumstances where overtaking is prohibited. In addition:
     (a) The competent authorities may exempt certain conveys of vehicles from this provision, or may similarly make it inapplicable on roads where two lanes are allotted to traffic in the direction concerned;
     (b) Contracting Parties and subdivisions thereof may prescribe different figures from those given in this paragraph with respect to the vehicle characteristics concerned.

Article 14. General Requirements Governing Manoeuvres

1. Any driver wishing to perform a manoeuvre such as pulling out of or into a line of parked vehicles, moving over to the right or to the left on the carriageway, or turning left or right into another road or into a property bordering on the road, shall first make sure that he can do so without risk of endangering other road-users travelling behind or ahead of him or about to pass him, having regard to their position, direction and speed.

2. Any driver wishing to make a U-turn or to reverse shall first make sure that he can do so without endangering or impeding other road-users.

3. Before turning or before a manoeuvre which involves moving laterally, the driver shall give clear and sufficient warning of his intention by means of the direction-indicator or directionindicators on his vehicle, or, failing this, by giving if possible an appropriate signal with his arm. The warning given by the direction-indicator or direction-indicators shall continue to be given throughout the manoeuvre and shall cease as soon as the manoeuvre is completed.


Article 15. Special Regulations Relating to Regular Public-Transport Service Vehicles

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that in built-up areas, in order to facilitate the movement of regular public-transport service vehicles, the drivers of other vehicles shall, subject to the provisions of Article 17, paragraph 1, of this Convention, slow down and if necessary stop in order to allow the public-transport vehicles to perform the manoeuvre required for moving off from stops marked as such. The provisions thus laid down by Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall in no way affect the duty incumbent on drivers of public-transport vehicles to take, after having given warning by means of their direction-indicators of their intention to move off, the precautions necessary to avoid any risk of accident.


Article 16. Change of Direction

1. Before turning right or left for the purpose of entering another road or entering a property bordering on the road, a driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, and of Article 14, of this Convention:

    (a) If he wishes to turn off on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to that direction and make as tight a turn as possible;
    (b) If he wishes to turn off on the other side, and subject to such other provisions as Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may enact for cycles and mopeds enabling them to change direction, for instance by crossing the intersection in two separate stages, move as closely as possible to the centreline of the carriageway if it is a two-way carriageway or to the edge opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic if it is a one-way carriageway and, if he wishes to enter another two-way road, make his turn so as to enter the carriageway of such other road on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic.

2. While changing direction, the driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 21 of this Convention regarding pedestrians, allow road users to pass on the carriageway, or on other parts of the same road he is preparing to leave.

Article 17. Slowing Down

1. No driver of a vehicle shall brake abruptly unless it is necessary to do so for safety reasons.

2. Every driver intending to slow down to an appreciable extent shall, except where his slowing down is in response to an imminent danger, first make sure that he can do so without danger or undue inconvenience to other drivers. He shall also, unless he has made sure that there is no vehicle following him or that any following vehicle is a long way behind, give clear and timely warning of his intention by making an appropriate signal with his arm. However, this provision shall not apply if warning of slowing down is given by the vehicle’s stop lights, referred to in Annex 5, paragraph 31, of this Convention.

Article 18. Intersections and Obligation to Give Way

1. Every driver approaching an intersection shall exercise such extra care as may be appropriate to local conditions. Drivers of vehicles shall, in particular, drive at such a speed as to be able to stop to allow vehicles having the right of way to pass.

2. Every driver emerging from a path or an earth-track (dirt road) on to a road other than a path or an earth-track shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road. For the purposes of this Article the terms “path” and “earth-track” (dirt road) may be defined in domestic legislation.

3. Every driver emerging on to a road from a property bordering thereon shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road.

4. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 7 of this Article:
     (a) In States where traffic keeps to the right the driver of a vehicle shall give way, at intersections other than those specified in paragraph 2 of this Article and in Article 25, paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Convention, to vehicles approaching from his right;
     (b) Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof in whose territories traffic keeps to the left shall be free to regulate the right of way at intersections as they see fit.

5. Even if traffic light signals authorize him to do so, a driver shall not enter an intersection if the density of traffic is such that he will probably be obliged to stop on the intersection, thereby obstructing or preventing the passage of cross traffic.

6. A driver who has entered an intersection where traffic is regulated by traffic light signals may clear the intersection without waiting for the way to be opened in the direction in which he wishes to proceed, provided that this does not impede the progress of other road-users moving in the open direction.

7. Drivers of vehicles not moving on rails shall give way to rail-borne vehicles.

Article 19. Level-Crossings

Road-users shall exercise extra care in approaching and traversing level-crossings. In particular:

   (a) Every driver of a vehicle shall drive at a moderate speed;
   (b) Without prejudice to the obligation to obey an instruction to stop given by a light signal or a sound signal, no road-user shall enter a level-crossing at which the gates or half-gates are across the road or in process of being placed across the road, or at which the half-gates are in process of being raised;
   (c) If a level-crossing is not equipped with gates, half-gates or light signals, no road-user shall enter it without making sure that no rail-borne vehicle is approaching;
   (d) No driver shall enter a level-crossing without first ascertaining that he may not be obliged to stop on it;
   (e) No road-user shall linger while traversing a level crossing; if a vehicle is compelled to stop, its driver shall endeavour to move it off the track, and, if he is unable to do so, immediately do everything he can to ensure that the drivers of rail-borne vehicles are warned of the danger in time.


Article 20. Rules Applicable to Pedestrians

1. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to enforce the provisions of this Article except in cases where pedestrian traffic on the carriageway would be dangerous or would obstruct vehicular traffic.

2. If, at the side of the carriageway, there are pavements (sidewalks) or suitable verges for pedestrians, pedestrians shall use them. Nevertheless, if they take the necessary precautions:
    (a) Pedestrians pushing or carrying bulky objects may use the carriageway if they would seriously inconvenience other pedestrians by walking on the pavement (sidewalk) or verge;
    (b) Groups of pedestrians led by a person in charge or forming a procession may walk on the carriageway.

3. If it is not possible to use pavements (sidewalks) or verges, or if none is provided, pedestrians may walk on the carriageway; where there is a cycle track and the density of traffic so permits, they may walk on the cycle track, but shall not obstruct cycle and moped traffic in doing so.

4. Pedestrians walking on the carriageway in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway.

5. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide as follows: pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall keep to the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic except where to do so places them in danger. However, persons pushing a cycle, a moped or a motorcycle, and groups of pedestrians led by a person in charge or forming a procession shall in all cases keep to the side of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. Unless they form a procession, pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall, by night or when visibility is poor and, by day, if the density of vehicular traffic so requires, walk in single file wherever possible.

6. (a) Pedestrians wishing to cross a carriageway shall not step on to it without exercising care; they shall use a pedestrian crossing whenever there is one nearby;
    (b) In order to cross the carriageway at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway:
             (i) If the crossing is equipped with light signals for pedestrians, the latter shall obey the instructions given by such lights;
             (ii) If the crossing is not equipped with such lights, but vehicular traffic is regulated by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, pedestrians shall not step onto the carriageway while the traffic light signal or the signal given by the authorized official indicates that vehicles may proceed along it;
            (iii) At other pedestrian crossings, pedestrians shall not step on to the carriageway without taking the distance and speed of approaching vehicles into account.
      (c) In order to cross the carriageway elsewhere than at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway, pedestrians shall not step on to the carriageway without first making sure that they can do so without impeding vehicular traffic.
      (d) Once they have started to cross a carriageway, pedestrians shall not take an unnecessarily long route, and shall not linger or stop on the carriageway unnecessarily.

7. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may impose stricter requirements on pedestrians crossing the carriageway.


Article 21. Behaviour of Drivers Towards Pedestrians

1. Every driver shall avoid behaviour likely to endanger pedestrians.

2. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 9, and Article 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention, where there is on the carriageway a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway:
     (a) If vehicular traffic is regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers forbidden to proceed shall stop short of the crossing or the transverse markings preceding it and, when they are permitted to proceed, shall not prevent or obstruct the passage of pedestrians who have stepped on to it; drivers turning into another road at the entrance to which there is a pedestrian crossing shall do so slowly and give way, if necessary stopping for this purpose, to pedestrians already using, or about to use, the crossing;
     (b) If vehicular traffic is not regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers shall approach the crossing only at a speed low enough not to endanger pedestrians using, or about to use, it; if necessary, they shall stop to allow such pedestrians to cross.

3. No provision of this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from:

Requiring drivers of vehicles to stop in all cases when pedestrians are using, or about to use, a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway in the conditions laid down in Article 20 of this Convention, or

Prohibiting them from preventing or obstructing the passage of pedestrians who are crossing the carriageway at or very near an intersection even if there is at that point no pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway.

4. Drivers intending to overtake, on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, a public transport vehicle at a stop marked as such shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow passengers to board or alight from that vehicle.


Article 22. Islands on the Carriageway

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 10 of this Convention, a driver may pass to the left or to the right of islands, posts and other devices set up on the carriageway on which he is travelling, except in the following cases:

(a) Where the side on which the island, post or device shall be passed is indicated by a sign;

(b) Where the island, post or device is on the centre-line of a two-way carriageway; in this case the driver shall keep to the side of the island, post or device corresponding to the direction of traffic.


Article 23. Standing and Parking

1. Outside built-up areas, standing or parked vehicles and halted animals shall so far as possible be stationed elsewhere than on the carriageway. Both in and outside built-up areas they shall not be stationed on cycle tracks, cycle lanes, bus lanes, tracks for horseback riders, footpaths, pavements or on verges specially provided for pedestrian traffic, save where applicable domestic legislation so permits.

2. (a) Animals halted and vehicles standing or parked on the carriageway shall be kept as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway. A driver shall not stand or park his vehicle on a carriageway save on the side appropriate, for him, to the direction of traffic; nevertheless, standing or parking on the other side shall be permitted where standing or parking on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic is prevented by the presence of rail tracks. Moreover, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may:

                  (i) Refrain from prohibiting standing and parking on one side or the other in certain conditions, for instance where standing on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic is prohibited by road signs;
                  (ii) On one-way carriageways, authorize standing and parking on the other side as well as or instead of on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic;
                  (iii) Authorize standing and parking in the middle of the carriageway at places specially marked;

     (b) Save where domestic legislation provides otherwise, vehicles other than two-wheeled cycles, two-wheeled mopeds and two-wheeled motorcycles without side-car shall not stand or be parked two abreast on the carriageway. Standing or parked vehicles shall, unless the layout of the area permits otherwise, be placed parallel to the edge of the carriageway.

3. (a) The standing or parking of a vehicle on the carriageway shall be prohibited:
                  (i) On pedestrian crossings, on crossings for cyclists, and on level-crossings;
                  (ii) On tramway or railway tracks on a road or so close to such tracks that the movement of trams or trains might be impeded, and also, subject to the possibility for Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof to provide otherwise, on pavements and cycle tracks;

     (b) The standing or parking of a vehicle at any point where it would constitute a danger shall be prohibited, more particularly:
                  (i) Save in such spaces as may be specially marked, under flyovers and in tunnels;
                  (ii) On the carriageway, close to the crests of hills, and on bends where visibility is not sufficient for the vehicle to be overtaken in complete safety, having regard to the speed of vehicles on the section of the road in question;
                  (iii) On a carriageway beside a longitudinal road marking, where subparagraph (b) (ii) of this paragraph does not apply but the width of the carriageway between the marking and the vehicle is less than 3 m and the marking is such that vehicles approaching it on the same side are forbidden to cross it;
                  (iv) At any place where the vehicle would conceal road signs or traffic light signals from the view of road-users;
                  (v) On an additional lane indicated by a sign for slowly moving vehicles;

     (c) The parking of a vehicle on the carriageway shall be prohibited:
                  (i) On approaches to level-crossings, to intersections and to bus, trolley-bus or rail vehicle stops; within the distances prescribed by domestic legislation;
                  (ii) In front of vehicle entries to properties;
                  (iii) At any point where the parked vehicle would prevent access to another vehicle properly parked or prevent such other vehicle from moving out;
                  (iv) On the central carriageway of three-carriageway roads and, outside built-up areas, on the carriageways of roads marked as priority roads by appropriate signs. 

4. A driver shall not leave his vehicle or his animals without having taken all suitable precautions to avoid any accident and, in the case of a motor vehicle, to prevent its unauthorized use.

5. It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide as follows: every power-driven vehicle other than a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car, and every trailer coupled or uncoupled shall when stationary on the carriageway outside a built-up area be signalled to approaching drivers at a sufficient distance by means of at least one appropriate device placed at the most suitable point to give them adequate advance warning:
        (a) If the vehicle is stationary at night on the carriageway in circumstances such that approaching drivers cannot be aware of the obstacle which the vehicle constitutes;
        (b) If the driver, in other cases, has been compelled to halt his vehicle at a place where standing is prohibited.

6. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from introducing other provisions on parking and standing or from making individual provisions for the standing and parking of cycles and mopeds.


Article 24. Opening of Doors

It shall be prohibited to open the door of a vehicle, to leave it open, or to alight from the vehicle without having made sure that to do so cannot endanger other road-users.

Article 25. Special Regulations for Tunnels Indicated by Special Road Signs

In tunnels indicated by the special road signs, the following rules shall apply:

1. All drivers are forbidden:
    (a) to reverse;
    (b) to make a U-turn;

2. Even if the tunnel is lit, all drivers must switch on the driving or passing lamps.

3. Drivers are permitted to stop or park a vehicle only in case of emergency or danger. In doing so, they must, where possible, use the places specially indicated.

4. In case of a prolonged stoppage the driver must switch off the engine.

Article 26. Special Rules Applicable to Processions and Handicapped Persons

1. It shall be prohibited for road-users to cut across troop columns, files of schoolchildren accompanied by a person in charge, and other processions.

2. Handicapped persons travelling in invalid chairs propelled by themselves or moving at a walking pace may use pavements (sidewalks) and suitable verges.

Article 27. Special Rules Applicable to Cyclists, Moped Drivers and Motorcyclists

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to prohibit cyclists from travelling two or more abreast.

2. It shall be prohibited for cyclists to ride without holding the handlebars with at least one hand, to allow themselves to be towed by another vehicle, or to carry, tow or push objects which hamper their cycling or endanger other road-users. The same provisions shall apply to moped drivers and motorcyclists; in addition, however, moped drivers and motorcyclists shall hold the handlebars with both hands except when signalling the manoeuvre described in Article 14, paragraph 3, of this Convention.

3. It shall be prohibited for cyclists and moped drivers to carry passengers on their vehicle; however, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may authorize exceptions to this provision and, in particular, authorize the transport of passengers on such additional saddle or saddles as may be fitted on the vehicle. Motorcyclists shall not be permitted to carry passengers except in the sidecar, if there is one, and on the additional saddle (pillion), if any, fitted behind the driver.

4. Where cycle lanes or cycle tracks exist, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may forbid cyclists to use the rest of the carriageway. In the same circumstances, they may authorize moped drivers to use the cycle lane or cycle track and, if they consider it advisable, prohibit them from using the rest of the carriageway. Domestic legislation shall specify under what conditions other road users may use the cycle lane or cycle track or cross them, maintaining cyclists’ safety at all times.

Article 28. Audible and Luminous Warnings

1. Audible warning devices may be used only:
    (a) To give due warning with a view to avoiding an accident;
    (b) Outside built-up areas when it is desirable to warn a driver that he is about to be overtaken. The sounds emitted by audible warning devices shall not be prolonged more than necessary.

2. Motor-vehicle drivers may give the luminous warnings specified in Article 32, paragraph 3, of this Convention, instead of audible warnings, between nightfall and dawn. They may also do so in daylight hours for the purpose indicated in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article, if to do so is more appropriate in the prevailing circumstances.

3. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may authorize the use of luminous warnings in built-up areas also for the purpose referred to in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article.


Article 29. Rail-Borne Vehicles

1. Where a railway uses a carriageway, every road-user shall, on the approach of a tram or other rail-borne vehicle clear the track as soon as possible to allow the rail-borne vehicle to pass.

2. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may adopt special rules, differing from those laid down in this Chapter, for the movement of rail-borne vehicles on the road and for passing or overtaking such vehicles. However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may not adopt provisions which conflict with those of Article 18, paragraph 7, of this Convention.


Article 30. Loading of Vehicles

1. If a permissible maximum mass is laid down for a vehicle, the laden mass of the vehicle shall never exceed the permissible maximum mass.

2. Every load on a vehicle shall be so arranged and, if necessary, stowed as to prevent it from:
    (a) Endangering persons or causing damage to public or private property, more particularly by trailing on or falling on to the road;
    (b) Obstructing the driver’s view or impairing the stability or driving of the vehicle;
    (c) Causing noise, raising dust, or creating any other nuisance which can be avoided;
    (d) Masking lights, including stop lights and direction-indicators, reflex reflectors, registration numbers and the distinguishing sign of the State of registration with which, under this Convention or under domestic legislation, the vehicle is required to be equipped, or masking signals given by arm in accordance with Article 14, paragraph 3, or Article 17, paragraph 2, of this Convention.

3. All accessories, such as cables, chains and sheets, used to secure or protect the load shall be drawn tight around the load and be firmly fastened. All accessories used to protect the load shall satisfy the requirements laid down for the load in paragraph 2 of this Article.

4. Loads projecting beyond the front, rear or sides of the vehicle shall be clearly marked in all cases where their projection might not be noticed by the drivers of other vehicles; at night, a white light and a white reflecting device shall be used for such marking at the front and a red light and a red reflecting device at the rear. More particularly, on power-driven vehicles:
    (a) Loads projecting more than 1 m beyond the front or rear of the vehicle shall always be marked;
    (b) Loads projecting laterally beyond the outer edge of the vehicle in such a way that their lateral outer edge is more than 0.40 m from the outer edge of the vehicle’s front position (side) light shall be marked at the front at night, and loads projecting in such a way that their lateral outer edge is more than 0.40 m from the outer edge of the vehicle’s red rear position (side) light shall be similarly marked at the rear at night.

5. Nothing in paragraph 4 of this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from prohibiting, restricting, or subjecting to special authorization, load projections as referred to in the aforesaid paragraph 4.

Carriage of passengers

Passengers shall not be carried in such numbers or in such a way as to interfere with driving or obstruct the driver’s view.



Article 31. Behaviour in Case of Accident

1. Without prejudice to the provisions of domestic legislation concerning the obligation to assist the injured, every driver or other road-user involved in a traffic accident shall:

    (a) Stop as soon as he can do so without causing an additional danger to traffic;
    (b) Endeavour to ensure traffic safety at the site of the accident and, if a person has been killed or seriously injured in the accident, to prevent, insofar as such action does not affect traffic safety, any change in conditions at the site, including the disappearance of traces which might be useful for determining responsibilities;
    (c) If so requested by other persons involved in the accident, identify himself to them;
    (d) If a person has been injured or killed in the accident, notify the police and remain on the scene of the accident or return to it and wait there until the arrival of the police, unless he has been authorized by the police to leave or has to assist the injured or to receive attention himself.

2. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may, under their domestic legislation, refrain from imposing the provision of paragraph 1 (d) of this Article in cases where no serious injury has been caused and none of the persons involved requests that the police should be notified.

Article 32. Rules of the Use of Lamps

1. Between nightfall and dawn and in any other circumstances when visibility is inadequate on account, for example, of fog, snowfall or heavy rain, the following lamps shall be lit on a moving vehicle:
    (a) On power-driven vehicles and mopeds the driving lamp(s) or passing lamp(s) and the rear position lamp(s), according to the equipment prescribed by the present Convention for the vehicle of each category;
    (b) On trailers, front position lamps, if such lamps are required according to Annex 5, paragraph 30, of this Convention, and not less than two rear position lamps.

2. Driving lamps shall be switched off and replaced by passing lamps:
    (a) In built-up areas where the road is adequately lighted and outside built-up areas where the carriageway is continuously lighted and the lighting is sufficient to enable the driver to see clearly for an adequate distance and to enable other road-users to see the vehicle far enough away;
    (b) When a driver is about to pass another vehicle, so as to prevent dazzle far enough away to enable the driver of the other vehicle to proceed easily and without danger;
    (c) In any other circumstances in which it is necessary to avoid dazzling other road-users or the users of a waterway or railway running alongside the road.

3. When, however, a vehicle is following closely behind another vehicle, driving lamps may be used to give a luminous warning as referred to in Article 28, paragraph 2, of the intention to overtake.

4. Fog lamps may be lit only in thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions and, as regards front fog maps, as a substitute for passing lamps. Domestic legislation may authorize the simultaneous use of front fog lamps and passing lamps and the use of front fog lamps on narrow, winding roads.

5. On vehicles equipped with front position lamps, such lamps shall be used together with the driving lamps, the passing lamps or the front fog lamps.

6. During the day, a motorcycle moving on the road shall display at least one passing lamp to the front and a red lamp to the rear. Domestic legislation may permit the use of daytime running lamps instead of passing lamps.

7. Domestic legislation may make it compulsory for drivers of motor vehicles to use during the day either passing lamps or daytime running lamps. Rear position lamps shall in this case be used together with the front lamps.

8. Between nightfall and dawn and in any other circumstances when visibility is inadequate, the presence of power-driven vehicles and their trailers standing or parked on a road shall be indicated by front and rear position lamps. In thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions passing lamps or front fog lamps may be used. Rear fog lamps may in these conditions be used as a supplement to the rear position lamps.

9. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 8 of this Article, within a built-up area the front and rear position lamps may be replaced by parking lamps, provided that:
    (a) The vehicle does not exceed 6 m in length and 2 m in width;
    (b) No trailer is coupled to the vehicle;
    (c) The parking lamps are placed on that side of the vehicle which is furthest from the carriageway edge alongside which the vehicle is standing or parked.

10. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 8 and 9 of this Article, a vehicle may be standing or parked without any lamps lit:
    (a) On a road lit in such a way that the vehicle is clearly visible at an adequate distance;
    (b) Away from the carriageway and hard shoulder;
    (c) In the case of mopeds and two-wheeled motorcycles without a side-car which are not equipped with batteries, at the extreme edge of a carriageway in a built-up area.

11. Domestic legislation may grant exemptions from the provisions of paragraphs 8 and 9 of this Article for vehicles standing or parked in streets in built-up areas where there is very little traffic.

12. Reversing lamps may be used only when the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.

13. Hazard warning signal may be used only to warn other road-users of a particular danger:
     (a) When a vehicle which has broken down or has been involved in an accident cannot be moved immediately, so that it constitutes an obstacle to other road-users;
     (b) When indicating to other road-users the risk of an imminent danger.

14. Special warning lamps: 
    (a) Displaying a blue light may be used only on priority vehicles when carrying out an urgent mission or when in other cases it is necessary to give warning to other road-users of the presence of the vehicle;
    (b) Displaying an amber light may be used only when the vehicles genuinely assigned to the specific tasks for which they were equipped with the special warning lamp or when the presence of such vehicles on the road constitutes a danger or inconvenience to other road-users.

The use of warning lamps displaying other colours may be authorized by domestic legislation.

15. In no circumstances shall a vehicle display a red light to the front or white light to the rear, subject to the exemptions mentioned in Annex 5, paragraph 61. A vehicle shall not be modified or lamps added to it in a way which could conflict with this requirement.


Article 33. Rules of Lighting of Other Vehicles Than Mentioned in Article 32 and of Certain Road Users

1. Every vehicle or combination of vehicles to which the provisions of Article 32 of this Convention do not apply shall, when on a road between nightfall and dawn, show at least one white or selective-yellow light to the front and at least one red light to the rear. Where there is only one lamp at the front or only one lamp at the rear, the lamp shall be placed on the centre-line of the vehicle or on the side opposite to that corresponding to the direction of traffic.

     (a) Handcarts, i.e., carts drawn or pushed by hand, shall show at least one white or selective-yellow light to the front and at least one red light to the rear. These two lights may be emitted by a single lamp placed on the side opposite to that corresponding to the direction of traffic. Lights shall not be required on handcarts not exceeding 1 m in width.
     (b) Animal-drawn vehicles shall show two white or selective-yellow lights to the front, and two red lights to the rear. Domestic legislation may, however, make it permissible for such vehicles to show only one white or selective-yellow light to the front and only one red light to the rear. The lamps shall in both cases be placed on the side opposite to that corresponding to the direction of traffic. If the lamps described above cannot be attached to the vehicle, they may be carried by an escort walking immediately alongside the vehicle, on the opposite side to that corresponding to the direction of traffic. Furthermore, animal-drawn vehicles shall be fitted with two red reflex-reflectors to the rear, as close as possible to the outer edges of the vehicle. Lights shall not be required on animal-drawn vehicles not exceeding 1 m in width. However, a single reflex-reflector shall in this case be placed at the rear on the side opposite to that corresponding to the direction of traffic, or centrally.

2. (a) When moving along the carriageway by night:
           (i) Groups of pedestrians led by a person in charge or forming a procession, must display, on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic, at least one white or selective-yellow light to the front and a red light to the rear, or an amber light in both directions;
           (ii) Drivers of draught, pack or saddle animals, or of cattle, must display, on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic, at least one white or selective--yellow light to the front and a red light to the rear, or an amber light in both directions. These lights may be displayed by a single device.

    (b) The lights referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph are, however, not required within an appropriately lit built-up area.

Article 34. Exemptions

1. When warned of the approach of a priority vehicle by its special luminous and audible warning devices every road-user shall leave room clear for it to pass on the carriageway and shall, if necessary, stop.

2. Domestic legislation may provide that drivers of priority vehicles shall not be bound, when warning of their movement is given by the vehicle’s special warning devices, and provided that they do not endanger other road-users, to comply with all or any of the provisions of this Chapter II other than those of Article 6, paragraph 2.

3. Domestic legislation may determine to what extent persons working on the construction, repair or maintenance of the road, including the drivers of equipment used for such work, shall not be bound, provided they take the necessary precautions, to observe the provisions of this Chapter II during their work.

4. For the purpose of overtaking or passing the equipment referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article while it is engaged in work on the road, the drivers of other vehicles may, to the extent necessary and on conditions that they take all due precautions, disregard the requirements of Articles 11 and Artical 12 of this Convention.

Artical 35. Registration

1. (a) In order to be entitled to the benefits of this Convention, every motor vehicle in international traffic, and every trailer, other than a light trailer, coupled to a motor vehicle shall be registered by a Contracting Party or a subdivision thereof, and the driver of the motor vehicle shall carry a valid certificate of such registration issued either by a competent authority of such Contracting Party or subdivision thereof or on behalf and by authorization of such Contracting Party or subdivision thereof by an association duly empowered thereto by that Contracting Party or subdivision thereof. This certificate, to be known as the registration certificate, shall bear the following particulars at least:

A serial number, to be known as the registration number, composed in the manner indicated in Annex 2 to this Convention;
The date of first registration of the vehicle;
The full name and home address of the holder of the certificate;
The name or the trademark of the maker of the vehicle;
The serial number of the chassis (the maker’s production or serial number);
In the case of a vehicle intended for the carriage of goods, the permissible maximum mass;
In the case of a vehicle intended for the carriage of goods, the unladen mass;
The period of validity, if not unlimited.
The particulars entered in the certificate shall either be in Latin characters or so-called English cursive script only, or be repeated in that form.

(b) Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may, however, decide that the year of manufacture, instead of the date of first registration, shall be entered on certificates issued in their territories.

(c) In the case of motor vehicles of categories A and B as defined in Annex 6 and Annex 7 to this Convention and, if possible, for other motor vehicles:
            (i) The certificate shall be headed with the distinguishing sign of the State of registration as defined in Annex 3 to this Convention;
            (ii) The letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H respectively shall be placed before or after the eight items of information which are required under subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, to be shown on all registration certificates;
            (iii) The words Certificat d’immatriculation in French may be placed either before or after the title of the certificate in the national language (or languages) of the country of registration.

(d) For trailers, including semi-trailers, imported temporarily into a country by a mode of transport other than road transport, a photocopy of the registration certificate, certified as a true copy by the authority which issued the certificate, shall be considered sufficient.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, an articulated vehicle which is not disassembled while in international traffic shall be entitled to the benefits of the provisions of this Convention even if it has only a single registration and a single certificate for the drawing vehicle and semi-trailer composing it.

3. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as limiting the right of Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof to require, in the case of a vehicle in international traffic which is not registered in the name of a person travelling in it, proof of the driver’s right to be in possession of the vehicle.

4. It is recommended that Contracting Parties should set up, if they have not already done so, a service responsible for keeping, at the national or regional level, a record of motor vehicles brought into use and a centralized record, for each vehicle, of the particulars entered in each certificate of registration.

Artical 36. Registration Number

1. Every motor vehicle in international traffic shall display its registration number at the front and at the rear; motorcycles, however, shall only be required to display this number at the rear.

2. Every registered trailer in international traffic shall display its registration number at the rear. Where a motor vehicle draws one or more trailers, the sole trailer or the last trailer, if not registered, shall display the registration number of the drawing vehicle.

3. The composition of the registration number referred to in this Article, and the manner of displaying it, shall conform to the provisions of Annex 2 to this Convention.


Artical 37. Distinguishing Sign of the State of Registration

1. (a) Every motor vehicle in international traffic shall display at the rear, in addition to its registration number, the distinguishing sign of the State in which it is registered.
    (b) This sign may either be placed separately from the registration plate or may be incorporated into the registration plate.
    (c) When the distinguishing sign is incorporated into the registration plate, it must also appear on the front registration plate of the vehicle if such is obligatory.

2. Every trailer coupled to a motor vehicle and required under Article 36 of this Convention to display a registration number at the rear shall also display at the rear, either separately from its registration plate or incorporated into it, the distinguishing sign of the State where the registration number was assigned. The provisions of this paragraph shall be applicable even if the trailer is registered in a State other than the State of registration of the motor vehicle to which it is coupled; if the trailer is not registered, it shall display at the rear the distinguishing sign of the State of registration of the drawing vehicle except when it is travelling in that State.

3. The composition of the distinguishing sign, and the manner of displaying it or its incorporation into the registration plate, shall conform to the conditions laid down in Annex 2 and Annex 3 to this Convention.

Artical 38. Identification Marks

Every motor vehicle and every trailer in international traffic shall bear the identification marks specified in Annex to this Convention.

Artical 39. Technical Requirements and Inspection of Vehicles

1. Every motor vehicle, every trailer and every combination of vehicles in international traffic shall satisfy the provisions of Annex 5 to this Convention. It shall also be in good working order.

2. Domestic legislation shall require periodic technical inspections of:
    (a) Motor vehicles used for the carriage of persons and having more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat;
    (b) Motor vehicles used for the carriage of goods whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 3,500 kg and trailers designed to be coupled to such vehicles.

3. Domestic legislation shall, as far as possible, extend the provision of paragraph 2 to the other categories of vehicles.

Artical 40. Transitional Provision

1. For a period of 10 years from the entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Article 47, paragraph 1, trailers in international traffic, whatever their permissible maximum mass, shall be entitled to the benefits of the provisions of this Convention even if they are not registered.

2. The registration certificate shall conform with the provisions of the amendment to Article 35, paragraph 1 within five years from the date of its entry into force. Certificates issued during that period shall be mutually recognized until the expiry date inscribed therein.


Article 41. Driving Permits

(Provisions applicable from 29 March 2011)

1. (a) Every driver of a motor vehicle must hold a driving permit;
    (b) Contracting Parties undertake to ensure that driving permits are issued only after verification by the competent authorities that the driver possesses the required knowledge and skills; the persons authorized to check if drivers have the necessary knowledge and skills must have appropriate qualifications; the contents and procedure of both theoretical and practical exams are regulated by national legislation;
    (c) Domestic legislation must lay down requirements for obtaining a driving permit. In particular, it shall specify the minimum ages for holding a permit, the medical conditions to be fulfilled and the conditions for passing the theoretical and practical exams;
    (d) Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from requiring driving permits for other power-driven vehicles and mopeds.

2. (a) Contracting Parties shall recognize:
          (i) Any domestic permit conforming to the provisions of Annex 6 to this Convention;
          (ii) Any international permit conforming to the provisions of Annex 7 to this Convention, on condition that it is presented with the corresponding domestic driving permit, as valid for driving in their territories a vehicle coming within the categories covered by the permits, provided that the permits are still valid and that they were issued by another Contracting Party or subdivision thereof or by an association duly empowered thereto by such other Contracting Party or one of its subdivisions;

    (b) Driving permits issued by a Contracting Party shall be recognized in the territory of another Contracting Party until this territory becomes the place of normal residence of their holder;
    (c) The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to learner-driver permits.

3. Domestic legislation may limit the period of validity of a domestic driving permit. The period of validity of an international permit shall be either no more than three years after the date of issue or until the date of expiry of the domestic driving permit, whichever is earlier.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2:
    (a) Where the validity of the driving permit is made subject by special endorsement to the condition that the holder shall wear certain devices or that the vehicle shall be equipped in a certain way to take account of the driver’s disability, the permit shall not be recognized as valid unless those conditions are observed;
    (b) Contracting Parties may refuse to recognize the validity in their territories of driving permits held by persons under eighteen years of age;
    (c) Contracting Parties may refuse to recognize the validity in their territories, for the driving of motor vehicles or combinations of vehicles in categories C, D, CE and DE referred to in Annex 6 and Annex 7 to this Convention, of driving permits held by persons under twenty-one years of age.

5. An international permit shall be issued only to the holder of a domestic permit for the issue of which the minimum conditions laid down in this Convention have been fulfilled. An international driving permit shall only be issued by the Contracting Party in whose territory the holder has his normal residence and which issued the domestic driving permit or which recognized the driving permit issued by another Contracting Party; it shall not be valid for use in that territory.

6. The provisions of this Article shall not require Contracting Parties:
    (a) To recognize the validity of domestic permits issued in the territory of another Contracting Party to persons who had their normal residence in their territories at the time of such issue or whose normal residence has been transferred to their territories since such issue;
    (b) To recognize the validity of domestic permits issued to drivers whose normal residence at the time of such issue was not in the territory in which the permit was issued or who since such issue have transferred their residence to another territory.


Article 42. Suspension of the Validity of Driving Permits

1. Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may withdraw from a driver the right to use his domestic or international driving permit in their territories if he commits in their territories a breach of their regulations rendering him liable under their legislations to the forfeiture of his permit. In such a case the competent authority of the Contracting Party or subdivision thereof withdrawing the right to use the permit may:

    (a) Withdraw and retain the permit until the period of the withdrawal of use expires or until the holder leaves its territory, whichever is the earlier;   
    (b) Notify the withdrawal of the right to use the permit to the authority by or on behalf of which the permit was issued;
    (c) In the case of an international permit, enter in the space provided for the purpose an endorsement to the effect that the permit is no longer valid in its territories;
    (d) Where it has not applied the procedure for which provision is made in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, supplement the communication referred to in subparagraph (b) by requesting the authority which issued the permit, or on behalf of which the permit was issued, to notify the person concerned of the decision taken with regard to him.

2. Contracting Parties shall endeavour to notify the persons concerned of the decisions communicated to them in accordance with the procedure laid down in paragraph 1 (d) of this Article.
  
3. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as prohibiting Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from preventing a driver holding a domestic or international driving permit from driving if it is evident or proved that his condition is such that he is unable to drive safely or if the right to drive has been withdrawn from him in the State in which he has his normal residence.


Article 43. Transitional Provisions

1. Contracting Parties shall issue domestic driving permits in accordance with the new provisions of Annex 6 at the latest five years after their entry into force. Domestic driving permits issued in accordance with the earlier provisions of Article 41, Article 43 and Annex 6 to this Convention prior to the expiry of this period shall be recognized as long as they are valid.

2. Contracting Parties shall issue international driving permits in accordance with the new provisions of Annex 7 at the latest five years after their entry into force. International driving permits issued in accordance with the earlier provisions of Article 41, Article 43 and Annex 7 to this Convention prior to the expiry of this period shall be valid according to the conditions defined in Article 41, paragraph 3.


Chapter V. Conditions for the Admission of Cycles and Mopeds to International Traffic

Artical 44

1. Cycles without an engine in international traffic shall:
    (a) Have an efficient brake;
    (b) Be equipped with a bell capable of being heard at a sufficient distance, and carry no other audible warning device;
    (c) Be equipped with a red reflecting device at the rear and with devices such that the cycle can show a white or selective-yellow light to the front and a red light to the rear.

2. In the territory of Contracting Parties which have not, in accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention, made a statement to the effect that they treat mopeds as motorcycles, mopeds in international traffic shall:
   (a) Have two independent brakes;
   (b) Be equipped with a bell or some other audible warning device capable of being heard at a sufficient distance;
   (c) Be equipped with an effective exhaust silencer;
   (d) Be so equipped that they can show a white or selective-yellow light to the front and a red light and a red reflex-reflector to the rear;
   (e) Display the identification mark specified in Annex 4 to this Convention.

3. In the territories of Contracting Parties which have, in accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention, declared that they treat mopeds as motorcycles, the conditions to be fulfilled by mopeds in order to be admitted to international traffic shall be those laid down for motorcycles in Annex 5 to this Convention.


Artical 45

1. This Convention shall be open at United Nations Headquarters, New York, until 31 December 1969 for signature by all States Members of the United Nations or of any of the specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other State invited by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the Convention.

2. This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 3. This Convention shall remain open for accession by any of the States referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary- General. 4. On signing this Convention or on depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, each State shall notify the Secretary-General of the distinguishing sign it has selected for display in international traffic on vehicles registered by it, in accordance with Annex 3 to this Convention. By a further notification addressed to the Secretary-General, any State may change a distinguishing sign it has previously selected.

Artical 46

1. Any State may, at the time of signing or ratifying this Convention, or of acceding thereto, or at any time thereafter, declare by notification addressed to the Secretary-General that the Convention shall become applicable to all or any of the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible. The Convention shall become applicable to the territory or territories named in the notification thirty days after the receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General or on the date of entry into force of the Convention for the State making the notification, whichever is the later.

2. Any State which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 of this Article may at any time thereafter declare by notification addressed to the Secretary-General that the Convention shall cease to be applicable to the territory named in the notification and the Convention shall cease to be applicable to such territory one year from the date of receipt by the Secretary-General of the notification.

3. A State making a notification under paragraph 1 of this Article shall notify the Secretary- General of the distinguishing sign or signs it has selected for display in international traffic on vehicles registered in the territory or territories concerned, in accordance with Annex 3 to this Convention. By a further notification addressed to the Secretary-General, any State may change a distinguishing sign it has previously selected.


Artical 47

 

1. This Convention shall enter into force twelve months after the date of deposit of the fifteenth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the fifteenth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force twelve months after the date of deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.


Artical 47

1. After this Convention has been in force for one year, any Contracting Party may propose one or more amendments to the Convention. The text of any proposed amendment, accompanied by an explanatory memorandum, shall be transmitted to the Secretary-General, who shall communicate it to all Contracting Parties. The Contracting Parties shall have the opportunity of informing him within a period of twelve months following the date of its circulation whether they (a) accept the amendment; or (b) reject the amendment; or (c) wish that a conference be convened to consider the amendment. The Secretary-General shall also transmit the text of the proposed amendment to all other States referred to in Article 45, paragraph 1 of this Convention.

2. (a) Any proposed amendment communicated in accordance with the preceding paragraph shall be deemed to be accepted if within the period of twelve months referred to in the preceding paragraph less than one third of the Contracting Parties inform the Secretary-General that they either reject the amendment or wish that a conference be convened to consider it. The Secretary- General shall notify all Contracting Parties of each acceptance or rejection of any proposed amendment and of requests that a conference be convened. If the total number of such rejections and requests received during the specified period of twelve months is less than one third of the total number of Contracting Parties, the Secretary-General shall notify all Contracting Parties that the amendment will enter into force six months after the expiry of the period of twelve months referred to in the preceding paragraph for all Contracting Parties except those which, during the period specified, have rejected the amendment or requested the convening of a conference to consider it.
    (b) Any Contracting Party which, during the said period of twelve months, has rejected a proposed amendment or requested the convening of a conference to consider it may at any time after the end of such period notify the Secretary-General that it accepts the amendment, and the Secretary-General shall communicate such notification to all the other Contracting Parties. The amendment shall enter into force, with respect to the Contracting Parties which have notified their acceptance, six months after receipt by the Secretary-General of their notification.

3. If a proposed amendment has not been accepted in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article and if within the period of twelve months specified in paragraph 1 of this Article less than half of the total number of the Contracting Parties inform the Secretary-General that they reject the proposed amendment and if at least one third of the total number of Contracting Parties, but not less than ten, inform him that they accept it or wish a conference to be convened to consider it, the Secretary-General shall convene a conference for the purpose of considering the proposed amendment or any other proposal which may be submitted to him in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article.

4. If a conference is convened in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article, the Secretary- General shall invite to it all States referred to in Article 45, paragraph 1 of this Convention. He shall request all States invited to the conference to submit to him, at least six months before its opening date, any proposals which they may wish the conference to consider in addition to the proposed amendment and shall communicate such proposals, at least three months before the opening date of the conference, to all States invited to the conference.

5. (a) Any amendment to this Convention shall be deemed to be accepted if it has been adopted by a two thirds majority of the States represented at the conference, provided that such majority comprises at least two thirds of Contracting Parties represented at the conference. The Secretary-General shall notify all Contracting Parties of the adoption of the amendment, and the amendment shall enter into force twelve months after the date of his notification for all Contracting Parties except those which during that period have notified the Secretary-General that they reject the amendment.
    (b) A Contracting Party which has rejected an amendment during the said period of twelve months may at any time notify the Secretary-General that it accepts the amendment, and the Secretary-General shall communicate such notification to all the other Contracting Parties. The amendment shall enter into force, with respect to the Contracting Party which has notified its acceptance, six months after receipt by the Secretary-General of the notification or at the end of the said period of twelve months, whichever is later.

6. If the proposed amendment is not deemed to be accepted pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article and if the conditions prescribed by paragraph 3 of this Article for convening a conference are not fulfilled, the proposed amendment shall be deemed to be rejected.

Artical 50

Any Contracting Party may denounce this Convention by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt by the Secretary-General of such notification.

 

Artical 51

This Convention shall cease to be in force if the number of Contracting Parties is less than five for any period of 12 consecutive months.

 


Artical 52

Any dispute between two or more Contracting Parties which relates to the interpretation or application of this Convention and which the Parties are unable to settle by negotiation or other means of settlement may be referred, at the request of any of the Contracting Parties concerned, to the International Court of Justice for decision.

 

Artical 53

Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting Party from taking such action, compatible with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and limited to the exigencies of the situation, as it considers necessary to its external or internal security.

 


Artical 54

1. Any State may, at the time of signing this Convention or of depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, declare that it does not consider itself bound by Article 52 of this Convention. Other Contracting Parties shall not be bound by Article 52 with respect to any Contracting Party which has made such a declaration.

2. At the time of depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, any State may, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General, declare that for the purposes of the application of the Convention it treats mopeds as motorcycles (Article 1 (n)). By notification addressed to the Secretary-General, any State may subsequently at any time withdraw its declaration.

3. The declarations provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article shall become effective six months after the date of receipt by the Secretary-General of notification of them or on the date on which the Convention enters into force for the State making the declaration, whichever is the later.

4. Any modification of a previously selected distinguishing sign notified in conformity with Article 45, paragraph 4, or Article 46, paragraph 3 of this Convention, shall take effect three months after the date on which the Secretary-General receives notification thereof.

5. Reservations to this Convention and its annexes, other than the reservation provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article, shall be permitted on condition that they are formulated in writing and, if formulated before the deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession, are confirmed in that instrument. The Secretary-General shall communicate such reservations to all States referred to in Article 45, paragraph 1, of this Convention.

6. Any Contracting Party which has formulated a reservation or made a declaration under paragraphs 1 or 4 of this Article may withdraw it at any time by notification addressed to the Secretary-General.

7. A reservation made in accordance with paragraph 5 of this Article:
   (a) Modifies for the Contracting Party which made the reservation the provisions of the Convention to which the reservation relates, to the extent of the reservation;
   (b) Modifies those provisions to the same extent for the other Contracting Parties in their relations with the Contracting Party which entered the reservation.


Articale 55

In addition to the declarations, notifications and communications provided for in Article 49 and Articale 54 of this Convention, the Secretary-General shall notify all the States referred to in Article 45, paragraph 1, of the following:

      (a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under Article 45;
     (b) Notifications and declarations under Article 45, paragraph 4, and Article 46;
     (c) The dates of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Article 47;
     (d) The date of entry into force of amendments to this Convention in accordance with Article 49, paragraphs 2 and 5;
     (e) Denunciations under Article 50;
     (f) The determination of this Convention under Article 51.

 


Artical 56

The original of this Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts done in a single copy are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary- General of the United Nations, who shall send certified true copies thereof to all the States referred to in Article 45, paragraph 1, of this Convention.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.

DONE at Vienna this eighth day of November, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.

Annex 1. Exceptions to the Obligation to Admit Motor Vehicles and Trailers to International Traffic

1. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles, trailers or combinations of vehicles whose overall mass or mass per axle or dimensions exceed the limits fixed by their domestic legislations for vehicles registered in their territories. Contracting Parties in whose territories there is international heavy vehicle traffic shall endeavour to conclude regional agreements under which roads in the region, with the exception of minor roads, will be open, in international traffic, to vehicles or combinations of vehicles whose mass and dimensions do not exceed the figures specified in these agreements.

2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Annex, the lateral projection of the following shall not be regarded as projection beyond the permissible maximum width:
    (a) Tyres, near their point of contact with the ground and connections of tyre-pressure indicators;
    (b) Anti-skid devices mounted on the wheels;
    (c) Driving mirrors so designed as to yield both forwards and backwards under moderate pressure so that they no longer project beyond the permissible maximum width;
    (d) Side direction-indicators and marker lights, provided that such projection does not exceed a few centimetres;
    (e) Customs seals affixed to the load, and devices for the securing and protection of such seals.

3. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic the following combinations of vehicles insofar as the use of such combinations is prohibited by their domestic legislations:
    (a) Motorcycles with trailers;
    (b) Combinations of vehicles consisting of a motor vehicle and several trailers;
    (c) Articulated vehicles used for passenger transport.

4. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic the motor vehicles and trailers to which the exceptions specified in paragraph 60 of Annex 5 to this Convention are applicable.

5. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic mopeds and motorcycles whose drivers and passengers, if any, are not equipped with protective helmets.

6. Contracting Parties may make it a condition for the admission to their territories in international traffic of any motor vehicle other than a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car, that the motor vehicle shall carry a device referred to in paragraph 56 of  Annex 5
7. Contracting Parties may make it a condition for the admission to certain difficult roads or to certain areas of difficult terrain in their territories in international traffic of motor vehicles with a permissible maximum mass exceeding 3,500 kg, that such vehicles shall comply with the special requirements laid down in their domestic legislations concerning the admission to such roads or areas of vehicles of the same permissible maximum mass registered by them.

8. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic any motor vehicle equipped with passing lamps with asymmetric beams if such beams have not been adapted to suit the direction of traffic in their territories.

9. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic any motor vehicle, or any trailer coupled to a motor vehicle, which displays a distinguishing sign other than one of those prescribed in Article 37 of this Convention. Contracting Parties may not refuse admission to a vehicle which has a distinguishing sign placed separately from the registration plate in conformity with the provisions of this Convention substituting a distinguishing sign which is incorporated into the registration plate and which is not in conformity with the provisions of this Convention.


Annex 2. Registration Number and Plate of Motor Vehicles and Trailers to International Traffic

1. The registration number referred to in Article 35 and Article 36 of this Convention shall be composed either of numerals or of numerals and letters. The numerals shall be Arabic numerals and the letters shall be in capital Latin characters. Other numerals or characters may, however, be used, but if so the registration number shall be repeated in Arabic numerals and in capital Latin characters.

2. The registration number shall be so composed and displayed as to be legible in normal daylight at a distance of at least 40 m by an observer placed on the axis of the vehicle, the vehicle being stationary; Contracting Parties may, however, in respect of the vehicles they register, reduce this minimum legibility distance for motorcycles and for special categories of motor vehicle on which it would be difficult to fit registration numbers of sufficient size to be legible at 40 m.

3. When the registration number is displayed on a plate, this plate shall be flat and fixed in a vertical or nearly vertical position and at right angles to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane. When the number is displayed or painted on the vehicle, the surface on which it is displayed or painted shall be flat and vertical, or nearly flat and vertical, and at right angles to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane.

4. Without prejudice to the provisions of Annex 5  and Annex 3, is displayed, may be of a retroreflective material.

5. The background of the part of the registration plate on which the distinguishing sign is incorporated shall be of the same material as that used for the background of the part on which the registration number is marked..


Annex 3. Distinguishing Sign of Motor Vehicles and Trailers to International Traffic

1. The distinguishing sign referred to in Article 37 of this Convention shall consist of one to three letters in capital Latin characters.

2. When the distinguishing sign is displayed separately from the registration plate, it must conform to the following conditions:
   
    (a) The letters shall have a height of at least 0.08 m and their strokes a width of at least 0.01 m. The letters shall be in black on a white background having the shape of an ellipse with the major axis horizontal. The white background may be of a retro-reflective material;
    (b) When the distinguishing sign consists of only one letter, the major axis of the ellipse may be vertical;
    (c) The distinguishing sign shall not be affixed in such a way that it could be confused with the registration number or impair its legibility;
    (d) On motorcycles and their trailers, the dimensions of the axes of the ellipse shall be at least 0.175 m and 0.115 m. On other motor vehicles and their trailers, the dimensions of the axes of the ellipse shall be at least:

           (i) 0.24 m and 0.145 m if the distinguishing sign comprises three letters;
           (ii) 0.175 m and 0.115 m if the distinguishing sign comprises less than three letters.

3. When the distinguishing sign is incorporated into the registration plate(s), the following conditions shall apply:
     (a) The letters shall have a height of at least 0.02 m, taking as a reference a registration plate of 0.11 m.;
     (b) (i) The distinguishing sign of the State of registration, which may be supplemented where applicable by the flag or emblem of the State or the emblem of the regional economic integration organization to which the country belongs, shall be displayed on the far left or right of the rear registration plate, but preferably on the left or the far upper left on plates where the number takes up two lines;
           (ii) When, in addition to the distinguishing sign, a non-numerical symbol and/or a flag and/or a regional or local emblem is displayed on the registration plate, the distinguishing sign of the State of registration shall obligatorily be placed on the far left of the plate;
     (c) The flag or emblem supplementing where applicable the distinguishing sign of the State of registration shall be positioned so that it cannot impair the legibility of the distinguishing sign and shall preferably be placed above it;
     (d) The distinguishing sign of the State of registration shall be positioned so as to be easily identifiable and so that it cannot be confused with the registration number or impair its legibility. The distinguishing sign shall therefore be at least of a different colour from the registration number, or have a different background colour to that reserved for the registration number, or be clearly separated, preferably by a line, from the registration number;
      (e) For the registration plates of motorcycles and their trailers and/or for registration plates taking up two lines, the size of the letters of the distinguishing sign as well as, where applicable, the size of the national flag or emblem of the State of registration or the symbol of the regional economic integration organization which the country belongs to may be appropriately modified;
      (f) The provisions of this paragraph shall apply according to the same principles to the front registration plate of the vehicle when this plate is obligatory.

4. The relevant provisions of Annex 2, paragraph 3, shall apply to the distinguishing sign.


Annex 4. Identification Marks of Motor Vehicles and Trailers to International Traffic

1. The identification marks shall comprise:
    (a) In the case of a motor vehicle: 

             (i) The name or the trade mark of the maker of the vehicle;
             (ii) On the chassis or, in the absence of a chassis, on the body, the maker’s production or serial number;
             (iii) On the engine, the engine number if such a number is placed on it by the maker;
   
    (b) In the case of a trailer, the information referred to in subparagraphs (i) and (ii) above;
    (c) In the case of a moped, the cylinder capacity and the mark “CM”.

2. The marks mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Annex shall be placed in accessible positions and shall be easily legible; in addition, they shall be such that they cannot be easily altered or removed. The letters and figures included in the marks shall be either in Latin characters or in English cursive script and in Arabic numerals only, or be repeated in that form.
     

Annex 5. Technical Conditions Concerning Motor Vehicles and Trailers

1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 3, paragraph 2 (a) and Article 39, paragraph 1 of this Convention any Contracting Party may, with respect to motor vehicles which it registers and to trailers which it allows on the road under its domestic legislation, lay down rules which supplement, or are stricter than, the provisions of this Annex. All vehicles in international traffic must meet the technical requirements in force in their country of registration when they first entered into service.

2. For the purposes of this Annex, the term “trailer” applies only to a trailer designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle.

3. Contracting Parties which, in conformity with Article 1, subparagraph (n), of this Convention, have declared that they wish to treat as motorcycles three-wheeled vehicles the unladen mass of which does not exceed 400 kg, shall make such vehicles subject to the rules laid down in this Annex either for motorcycles or for other motor vehicles.
     
Braking
Vehicle lighting and light-signalling devices
Other requirements
Exemptions
Transitional provisions
Definition of colour filters


 Braking

4. For the purposes of this chapter:
    (a) The term “wheels of one axle” means wheels which are arranged symmetrically, or largely symmetrically, in relation to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane, even if they are not placed on the same axle (a tandem axle is counted as two axles);
    (b) The term “service brake” means the device normally used to slow down and stop the vehicle;
    (c) The term “parking brake” means the device used to hold the vehicle stationary in the driver’s absence, or, in the case of trailers, when the trailer is uncoupled;
    (d) The term “secondary (emergency) brake” means the device designed to slow down and stop the vehicle in the event of failure of the service brake.

A. Braking of motor vehicles other than motorcycles

5. Every motor vehicle other than a motorcycle shall have brakes which can be easily operated by the driver when in his driving position. These brakes shall be capable of performing the following three braking functions:
     (a) A service brake capable of slowing down the vehicle and of stopping it safely, rapidly and effectively, whatever its conditions of loading and whatever the upward or downward gradient of the road on which it is moving;
     (b) A parking brake capable of holding the vehicle stationary, whatever its conditions of loading, on a noticeable upward or downward gradient, the operative surfaces of the brake being held in the braking position by a device whose action is purely mechanical;
     (c) A secondary (emergency) brake capable of slowing down and stopping the vehicle, whatever its conditions of loading, within a reasonable distance, even in the event of failure of the service brake.

6. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Annex, the devices providing the three braking functions (service brake, secondary brake and parking brake) may have parts in common; combination of the controls shall be permitted only on condition that at least two separate controls remain.

7. The service brake shall act on all the wheels of the vehicle.

8. The secondary (emergency) brake shall be capable of acting on at least one wheel on each side of the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane; the same provision shall apply to the parking brake.

9. The service brake and the parking brake shall act on braking surfaces permanently connected to the wheels through components of adequate strength.

10. No braking surface shall be capable of being disconnected from the wheels. Nevertheless, such disconnection shall be permitted in the case of some of the braking surfaces, on condition:
      (a) That it is only momentary, as for example, during a change of gear;
      (b) That so far as concerns the parking brake, it can be effected only by the action of the driver; and
      (c) That so far as concerns the service or secondary (emergency) brake, braking remains possible with the efficiency prescribed in paragraph 5 of this Annex.

10 bis. All vehicle equipment contributing to braking shall be so designed and constructed that the efficacy of the service brake is ensured after prolonged and repeated use.

10 ter. The service braking action shall be properly distributed and synchronized among the various axles of the vehicle.

10 quater. If the control of the service brake is assisted, partially or totally, by an energy source other than the muscular energy of the driver, it shall be possible to stop the vehicle within a reasonable distance even in the event of the failure of the energy source.

B. Braking of trailers

11. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 17 (c) of this Annex, every trailer, with the exception of a light trailer, shall have brakes as follows:

(a) A service brake capable of slowing down the vehicle and of stopping it safely, rapidly and effectively, whatever its conditions of loading and whatever the upward or downward gradient of the road on which it is moving;

(b) A parking brake capable of holding the vehicle stationary, whatever its conditions of loading, on a noticeable upward or downward gradient, the operative surfaces of the brake being held in the braking position by a device whose action is purely mechanical. This provision shall not apply to trailers which cannot be uncoupled from the drawing vehicle without the use of tools, provided that the requirements for parking brakes are satisfied for the combination of vehicles.

12. The devices providing the two braking functions (service and parking) may have parts in common.

13. The service brake shall act on all the wheels of the trailer. The braking action shall be properly distributed and synchronized among the various axles of the trailer.

14. The service brake shall be capable of being brought into action by the service brake control of the drawing vehicle; if, however, the permissible maximum mass of the trailer does not exceed 3,500 kg, the brakes may be such as to be brought into action, while the trailer is in motion, only by the trailer moving up on the drawing vehicle (overrun braking).

15. The service brake and the parking brake shall act on braking surfaces permanently connected to the wheels through components of adequate strength.

16. The braking devices shall be such that the trailer is stopped automatically if the couplingdevice breaks while the trailer is in motion. This requirement shall not apply, however, to trailers with only one axle or with two axles less than 1 m apart, provided that their permissible maximum mass does not exceed 1,500 kg and, except for semi-trailers, that they are fitted, in addition to the coupling device, with a secondary attachment.

C. Braking of combinations of vehicles

17. In addition to the provisions of parts A and B of this Chapter relating to separate vehicles (motor vehicles and trailers), the following provisions shall apply to combinations of such vehicles:
      (a) The braking devices on each of the component vehicles shall be compatible;
      (b) The service braking action shall be properly distributed and synchronized between the various axles of the combination;
      (c) The permissible maximum mass of a trailer without a service brake shall not exceed half of the sum of the unladen mass of the drawing vehicle and the mass of the driver.

D. Braking of motorcycles

18. (a) Every motorcycle shall be equipped with two brakes, one of which acts at least on the rear wheel or wheels and the other at least on the front wheel or wheels; if a side-car is attached to a motorcycle, braking of the side-car wheel shall not be required. These braking devices shall be capable of slowing down the motorcycle and of stopping it safely, rapidly and effectively, whatever its conditions of loading and whatever the upward or downward gradient of the road on which it is moving;

(b) In addition to the provisions of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, motorcycles having three wheels symmetrically arranged in relation to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane shall be equipped with a parking brake that fulfils the conditions stated in paragraph 5 (b) of this Annex.

Vehicle Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices

19. For the purposes of this chapter, the term:

“Driving lamp” means the lamp used to illuminate the road over a long distance ahead of the vehicle;

“Passing lamp” means the lamp used to illuminate the road ahead of the vehicle without causing undue dazzle or inconvenience to oncoming drivers and other road-users;

“Front position lamp” means the lamp used to indicate the presence and the width of the vehicle when viewed from the front;

“Rear position lamp” means the lamp used to indicate the presence and the width of the vehicle when viewed from the rear;

“Stop lamp” means the lamp used to indicate to other road-users to the rear of the vehicle that the driver is applying the service brake;

“Front fog lamp” means the lamp used to improve the illumination of the road in case of thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions;

“Rear fog lamp” means the lamp used to make the vehicle more visible from the rear in case of thick fog, falling snow, heavy rain or similar conditions;

“Reversing lamp” means the lamp used to illuminate the road to the rear of the vehicle and provide a warning signal to other road-users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse;

“Direction-indicator lamp” means the lamp used to indicate to other road-users that the driver intends to change direction to the right or to the left;

“Parking lamp” means the lamp used to indicate the presence of a parked vehicle; it may replace the front and rear position lamps;

“Marker lamp” means the lamp positioned near the outer edge of the overall width and as near as possible to the top of the vehicle for the purpose of clearly indicating the overall width. This signal complements the position lamps for some motor vehicles and trailers by drawing particular attention to their size;

“Hazard warning signal” means the signal given by the simultaneous functioning of all the direction-indicator lamps;

“Side lamp” means the lamp installed on the side of the vehicle so as to indicate its presence when viewed from the side;

“Special warning lamp” means the lamp intended to indicate either priority vehicles or a vehicle or a group of vehicles whose presence on the road requires other road-users to take special precautions, in particular, convoys of vehicles, vehicles of exceptional size and road construction or maintenance vehicles or equipment;

“Rear registration plate illuminating device” means the device ensuring the illumination of the rear registration plate; it may be made up of several optical elements;

“Daytime (running) lamp” means a lamp intended to improve the daytime conspicuity and visibility of the front of a vehicle in running use;

“Reflex-reflector” means a device used to indicate the presence of a vehicle by reflection of light emanating from a light source unconnected with that vehicle;

“Illuminating surface” means the orthogonal projection, in a transverse vertical plane, of the effective surface from which the light is emitted. For a reflex-reflector, the effective surface is the visible surface of the reflex-reflecting optical unit.

20. The colours of lights mentioned in this chapter should, as far as possible, be in accordance with the definitions given in the appendix to this Annex.

21.With the exception of motorcycles, every motor vehicle capable of exceeding 40 km (25 miles) per hour on level road shall be equipped in front with an even number of white or selectiveyellow driving lamps capable of adequately illuminating the road at night in clear weather [words deleted]. The outer edges of the illuminating surfaces of the driving lamps shall in no case be closer to the extreme outer edge of the vehicle than the outer edges of the illuminating surfaces of the passing lamps.

22. With the exception of motorcycles, every motor vehicle capable of exceeding 10 km (6 miles) per hour on level road shall be equipped in front with an even number of white or selectiveyellow passing lamps capable of adequately illuminating the road at night in clear weather. A motor vehicle shall be equipped with a device such that no more than two passing lamps may be lit simultaneously. Passing lamps shall be so adjusted as to comply with the definition in paragraph 19 of this Annex.

23. Every motor vehicle other than a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car shall be equipped in front with two white front position lamps; however, selective yellow shall be permitted for front position lamps incorporated in driving lamps or passing lamps which emit a selective-yellow beam. These front position lamps, when they are the only lamps switched on at the front of the vehicle, shall be visible at night in clear weather without causing undue dazzle or inconvenience to other road-users.

24. (a) Every motor vehicle other than a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car shall be equipped at the rear with an even number of red rear position lamps visible at night in clear weather without causing undue dazzle or inconvenience to other road-users;
      (b) Every trailer shall be equipped at the rear with an even number of red rear position lamps visible at night in clear weather without causing undue dazzle or inconvenience to other road-users. It shall, however, be permissible for a trailer whose overall width does not exceed 0.80 m to be equipped with only one such lamp if the trailer is coupled to a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car.

25. Every motor vehicle or trailer displaying a registration number at the rear shall be equipped with a lighting device such that the number is legible at night in clear weather.

26. The electrical connections on all motor vehicles (including motorcycles) and on all combinations consisting of a motor vehicle and one or more trailers shall be such that the driving lamps, passing lamps, front fog lamps and front position lamps of the motor vehicle and the lighting device referred to in paragraph 25 above cannot be switched on unless the rearmost rear position lamps of the motor vehicle or combination of vehicles are switched on as well. Rear fog lamps shall be able to be switched on only if the driving lamps, the passing lamps or the front fog lamps are switched on. However, this provision shall not apply to driving lamps or passing lamps when they are used to give the luminous warning referred to in Article 32, paragraph 3, of this Convention. In addition, the electrical connections shall be such that the front position lamps of the motor vehicle are always switched on when the passing lamps, driving lamps or fog lamps are on.

27. Every motor vehicle other than two-wheeled motorcycles without side-car shall be equipped at the rear with at least two red reflex-reflectors of other than triangular form. When illuminated by the driving, passing or fog lamps of another vehicle, the reflex-reflectors shall be visible to the driver of that vehicle at night in clear weather.

28. Every trailer shall be equipped at the rear with at least two red reflex-reflectors. These reflex-reflectors shall have the shape of an equilateral triangle with one vertex uppermost and one side horizontal. No signal lamp shall be placed inside the triangle. These reflex-reflectors shall meet the requirements for visibility laid down in paragraph 27 above. However, trailers with an overall width not exceeding 0.80 m may be equipped with only one reflex-reflector if they are coupled to a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car.

29. Every trailer shall be equipped at the front with two white reflex-reflectors of other than triangular form. These reflex-reflectors shall meet the [words deleted] visibility requirements laid down in paragraph 27 above.

30. A trailer shall be equipped at the front with two white front position lamps if its width exceeds 1.60 m. The front position lamps thus prescribed shall be fitted as near as possible to the extreme outer edge of the trailer.

31. With the exception of two-wheeled motorcycles with or without side-car, every motor vehicle capable of exceeding 25 km (15 miles) per hour on a level road shall be equipped at the rear with at least two red stop lamps, the luminous intensity of which is markedly higher than that of the rear position lamps. The same provision shall apply to every trailer which is the last vehicle in a combination of vehicles.

32. Subject to the possibility that exemption from all or some of these obligations may be granted in respect of mopeds by Contracting Parties which, in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention, have declared that they treat mopeds as motorcycles:
      (a) Every two-wheeled motorcycle with or without side-car shall be equipped with one or two passing lamps satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 22 above;
      (b) Every two-wheeled motorcycle with or without side-car capable of exceeding 40 km (25 miles) per hour on a level road shall be equipped, in addition to the passing lamp, with at least one driving lamp satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 21 above. If such a motorcycle has more than one driving lamp, these lamps shall be situated as close together as possible.

33. Every two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car may be equipped at the front with one or two front position (side) lamps satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 23 above. If such a motorcycle has two front position (side) lamps, these lamps shall be situated as close together as possible.

34. Every two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car shall be equipped at the rear with one rear position side lamp satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 24 (a) above.

35. Every two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car shall be equipped at the rear with a non-triangular reflex-reflector satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 27 above.

36. Subject to the possibility for Contracting Parties which, in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, have declared that they treat mopeds as motorcycles, to exempt two-wheeled mopeds with or without side-cars from this obligation, every two-wheeled motorcycle with or without sidecar shall be equipped with a stop lamp conforming to the provisions of paragraph 31 above.

37. Without prejudice to the provisions concerning lamps and devices prescribed for twowheeled motorcycles without side-car, any side-car attached to a two-wheeled motorcycle shall be equipped at the front with a front position (side) lamp satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 23 above, and at the rear with a rear position (side) lamp satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 24 (a) above and with a reflex-reflector satisfying the conditions regarding colour and visibility laid down in paragraph 27 above. The electrical connections shall be such that the front position (side) lamp and rear position (side) lamp of the side-car are switched on at the same time as the rear position (side) lamp of the motorcycle.

38. Motor vehicles with three wheels placed symmetrically in relation to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane, which are treated as motorcycles pursuant to Article 1, subparagraph (n), of the Convention, shall be equipped with the devices prescribed in paragraphs 21, 22, 23, 24 (a), 27 and 31 above. However, on an electric vehicle the width of which does not exceed 1.30 m and the speed of which does not exceed 40 km (25 miles) per hour a single driving lamp and a single passing lamp are sufficient.

39. Every motor vehicle, except a moped, and every trailer shall be equipped with fixed direction-indicators with flashing amber lights, fitted on the vehicle in even numbers and visible by day and by night to road-users affected by the vehicle’s movements.

40. If front fog lamps are fitted on a motor vehicle they shall emit white or selective-yellow light, be two or, in the case of a motorcycle, one in number and be placed in such a way that no point on their illuminating surface is above the highest point on the illuminating surface of the passing lamps.

41. No reversing lamp shall cause undue dazzle or inconvenience to other road-users. If reversing lamps are fitted on a motor vehicle they shall emit white or selective-yellow light. These lamps shall be lit only when the reverse gear is engaged.

42. No lamps, other than direction-indicator lamps and special warning lamps, shall emit a winking or flashing light. Side lamps may wink at the same time as direction-indicator lamps.

42 bis. Special warning lamps shall emit a winking or flashing light. Colours of these lights should conform to the provisions of Article 32, paragraph 14.
 
42 ter. Every motor vehicle except motorcycles and every trailer shall be so equipped that they can emit a hazard warning signal.

42 quater. If rear fog lamps are fitted on a motor vehicle or a trailer they shall be red.

42 quinquies. Every motor vehicle and every trailer more than 6 m long shall be fitted with amber side reflex-reflectors.

42 sexties. Every motor vehicle and trailer more than 1.80 m wide may be fitted with marker lamps. Such lamps shall be mandatory if the width of a motor vehicle or trailer exceeds 2.10 m. If these lamps are used, there shall be at least two of them and they shall emit white or amber light towards the front and red light towards the rear.

42 septies. Every motor vehicle and trailer may be fitted with side lamps. If such lamps are fitted they shall emit amber light.

43. For the purposes of the provisions of this Annex:
      (a) Any combination of two or more lamps, whether identical or not, but having the same function and the same colour of light, shall be deemed to be a single lamp;
      (b) A single illuminating surface in the shape of a band shall be deemed to be two or an even number of lamps if it is placed symmetrically to the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle. The illumination of such a surface shall be provided by at least two light sources placed as close as possible to its ends.

44. Lamps on a given vehicle having the same function and facing in the same direction, shall be of the same colour. Lamps and reflex-reflectors which are of even number shall be placed symmetrically in relation to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane, except on vehicles with an asymmetrical external shape. The intensity of the lamps in each pair shall be substantially the same.

45. Lamps of different kinds, and, subject to the provisions of other paragraphs of this Chapter, lamps and reflex-reflectors, may be grouped or incorporated in the same device, provided that each of these lamps and reflectors complies with the applicable provisions of this Annex.

Other Requirements

Steering mechanism

46. Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a strong steering mechanism which will allow the driver to change the direction of the vehicle, easily, quickly and surely.

Driving (rear-view) mirror

47. Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with one or more driving (rear-view) mirrors; the number, dimensions and arrangement of these mirrors shall be such as to enable the driver to see the traffic to the rear of his vehicle.

Audible warning device

48. Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with at least one audible warning device of sufficient power. The sound emitted by the warning device shall be continuous and uniform, but not strident. Priority vehicles and public passenger-transport vehicles may have additional audible warning devices which are not subject to these requirements.

Windscreen-wiper

49. Every motor vehicle having a windscreen of such dimensions and shape that the driver cannot normally see the road ahead from his driving position except through the transparent part of the windscreen, shall be equipped with at least one efficient and strongly built windscreen-wiper in an appropriate position, the functioning of which does not require constant action by the driver.

Windscreen-washer

50. Every motor vehicle required to be equipped with at least one windscreen-wiper shall also be equipped with a windscreen-washer.

Windscreen and windows

51. On all motor vehicles and on all trailers:
      (a) Transparent substances forming part of the vehicle’s bodywork, including the windscreen and any interior partition, shall be such that in case of breakage, the risk of physical injury will be minimized;
      (b) The transparent parts of the windscreen shall be made of a substance whose transparency does not deteriorate; they shall be such that they do not cause any appreciable distortion of objects seen through the windscreen, and that, in case of breakage, the driver still has a sufficiently clear view of the road.

Reversing device

52. Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a reversing device controlled from the driving position. This device shall not, however, be compulsory on motorcycles or on motor vehicles having three wheels arranged symmetrically in relation to the vehicle’s median longitudinal plane unless their permissible maximum mass exceeds 400 kg.

Exhaust silencer

 53. Every internal combustion engine used for propelling a motor vehicle shall be equipped with an efficient exhaust silencer.  

Tyres

54. The wheels of motor vehicles and of their trailers shall be fitted with pneumatic tyres ensuring a good adhesion, even on a wet road. This provision shall not, however, prevent Contracting Parties from authorizing the use of devices producing results at least equivalent to those obtained with pneumatic tyres.

Speedometer

55. Every motor vehicle capable of exceeding 40 km (25 miles) per hour on a level road shall be equipped with a speedometer; Contracting Parties may, however, exempt certain categories of motorcycles and other light vehicles from this requirement.

Warning device to be carried on motor vehicles

56. The device referred to in Article 23, paragraph 5, of this Convention, and in paragraph 6 of Annex 1 thereto shall be either:
      (a) A signplate consisting of an equilateral triangle with a red border and with its interior part either hollow or of a light colour; the red border shall be fitted with a reflectorized strip. It may also have a red fluorescent area and/or be illuminated by transparency; the signplate shall be such that it can be stood firmly in a vertical position; or
      (b) Some other equally effective device, prescribed by the legislation of the country in which the vehicle is registered.

Anti-theft device

57. Every motor vehicle shall be fitted with an anti-theft device by means of which one of its essential components can be put out of action or blocked when the vehicle is parked.

Restraining devices

58. Wherever technically practicable all forward-facing seats of vehicles of category B as referred to in Annex 6 and Annex 7 of this Convention, with the exception of vehicles constructed or used for special purposes as defined by domestic legislation, shall be equipped with approved safety belts or similarly effective approved devices.

General provisions

59. (a) The mechanical parts and equipment of a motor vehicle shall not, so far as this can possibly be avoided, give rise to any danger of fire or explosion; nor shall they cause excessive emission of noxious gases, opaque fumes, smells or noise.
      (b) So far as possible, the high-tension ignition device of a motor vehicle shall not cause excessive radio interference.
      (c) Every motor vehicle shall be so constructed that the driver’s field of vision ahead, and to both right and left, is sufficient to enable him to drive safely.
      (d) Motor vehicles and trailers shall, as far as possible, be so constructed and equipped as to reduce the danger to their occupants and to other road-users in case of accident. In particular, they shall have no ornaments or other objects, inside or outside, with unnecessary projections or ridges which may be dangerous to the occupants or other road-users.
      (e) Vehicles of which the maximum permitted mass exceeds 3.5 t shall be equipped, as far as possible, with side and rear-under run devices.

Exemptions

60. For domestic purposes, Contracting Parties may grant exemptions from the provisions of this Annex in respect of:

     (a) Motor vehicles and trailers which, by virtue of their design, cannot exceed a speed of 30 km (19 miles) per hour on a level road of whose speed is limited by domestic legislation to 30 km per hour;
     (b) Invalid carriages, i.e. small motor vehicles specially designed and constructed - and not merely adapted - for use by a person suffering from some physical defect or disability and normally used by that person only;
     (c) Vehicles used for experiments whose purpose is to keep up with technical progress and improve road safety;
     (d) Vehicles of a special form or type, or which are used for particular purposes under special conditions;
     (e) Vehicles adapted for use by handicapped persons.

61. Contracting Parties may also grant exemptions from the provisions of this Annex in respect of vehicles which they register and which may enter international traffic:
     (a) By authorizing the use of the colour amber for the front position lamps of motor vehicles and trailers;
     (b) As regards the position of lamps on special-purpose vehicles whose external shape is such that the said provisions could not be observed without the use of mounting devices which could easily be damaged or torn off;
     (c) As regards trailers, carrying long loads (tree trunks, pipes, etc.), which are not coupled to the drawing vehicle when in movement, but merely attached to it by the load;
     (d) By authorizing the emission towards the rear of white light and towards the front of red light for the following equipment:
                – Revolving of flashing lamps of priority vehicles;
                – Fixed lamps for exceptional loads;
                – Side lamps and reflex-reflectors;
                – Professional lighted signs on the roof;
     (e) By authorizing the emission of blue light towards the front and towards the rear for revolving or flashing lamps;
     (f) By authorizing on any side of a vehicle of a special shape or kind or used for special purposes and in special conditions, alternating red retro-reflective or fluorescent and white retroreflective strips;
     (g) By authorizing the emission towards the rear of white or coloured light reflected by figures or letters or by the background of rear registration plates, by distinctive signs or by other distinctive marks required by domestic legislation;
     (h) By authorizing the use of the colour red for rearmost lateral reflex-reflectors and side lamps.

Annex 1. Exceptions to the Obligation to Admit Motor Vehicles and Trailers to International Traffic

1. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles, trailers or combinations of vehicles whose overall mass or mass per axle or dimensions exceed the limits fixed by their domestic legislations for vehicles registered in their territories. Contracting Parties in whose territories there is international heavy vehicle traffic shall endeavour to conclude regional agreements under which roads in the region, with the exception of minor roads, will be open, in international traffic, to vehicles or combinations of vehicles whose mass and dimensions do not exceed the figures specified in these agreements.

2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Annex, the lateral projection of the following shall not be regarded as projection beyond the permissible maximum width:
    (a) Tyres, near their point of contact with the ground and connections of tyre-pressure indicators;
    (b) Anti-skid devices mounted on the wheels;
    (c) Driving mirrors so designed as to yield both forwards and backwards under moderate pressure so that they no longer project beyond the permissible maximum width;
    (d) Side direction-indicators and marker lights, provided that such projection does not exceed a few centimetres;
    (e) Customs seals affixed to the load, and devices for the securing and protection of such seals.

3. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic the following combinations of vehicles insofar as the use of such combinations is prohibited by their domestic legislations:
    (a) Motorcycles with trailers;
    (b) Combinations of vehicles consisting of a motor vehicle and several trailers;
    (c) Articulated vehicles used for passenger transport.

4. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic the motor vehicles and trailers to which the exceptions specified in paragraph 60 of Annex 5 to this Convention are applicable.

5. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic mopeds and motorcycles whose drivers and passengers, if any, are not equipped with protective helmets.

6. Contracting Parties may make it a condition for the admission to their territories in international traffic of any motor vehicle other than a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motorcycle without side-car, that the motor vehicle shall carry a device referred to in paragraph 56 of  Annex 5
7. Contracting Parties may make it a condition for the admission to certain difficult roads or to certain areas of difficult terrain in their territories in international traffic of motor vehicles with a permissible maximum mass exceeding 3,500 kg, that such vehicles shall comply with the special requirements laid down in their domestic legislations concerning the admission to such roads or areas of vehicles of the same permissible maximum mass registered by them.

8. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic any motor vehicle equipped with passing lamps with asymmetric beams if such beams have not been adapted to suit the direction of traffic in their territories.

9. Contracting Parties may refuse to admit to their territories in international traffic any motor vehicle, or any trailer coupled to a motor vehicle, which displays a distinguishing sign other than one of those prescribed in Article 37 of this Convention. Contracting Parties may not refuse admission to a vehicle which has a distinguishing sign placed separately from the registration plate in conformity with the provisions of this Convention substituting a distinguishing sign which is incorporated into the registration plate and which is not in conformity with the provisions of this Convention.


Definition of Colour Filters

FOR OBTAINING THE COLOURS REFERRED TO IN ANNEX 5 (TRICHROMATIC COORDINATES)

  Red

 limit towards yellow

  y ≤ 0.335

 

  limit towards purple

  z ≤ 0.008

 

 

 

  White

 limit towards blue

  x ≥ 0.310

 

  limit towards yellow

   x ≤ 0.500

 

  limit towards green

  y ≤ 0.150 + 0.640x 

 

  limit towards green

   y ≤ 0.440

 

 limit towards purple 

  y ≥ 0.050 + 0.750x

 

  limit towards red

  y ≥ 0.382

 

 

 

Amber

limit towards yellow

   y ≤ 0.429

 

limit towards red

   y ≥ 0.398

 

limit towards white

   z ≤ 0.007

 

 

 

Selective yellow

limit towards red

   y ≥ 0.138 + 0.580x

 

limit towards green

   y ≤ 1.29x - 0.100

 

limit towards white

   y ≥ -x + 0.966

 

limit towards spectral value

  y ≤ -x + 0.992

 

 

 

Blue

limit towards green

  y = 0.065 + 0.805x 

 

limit towards white

  y = 0.400 -x

 

limit towards purple

  x = 0.133 + 0.600y 

 

 

 

For verifying the colorimetric characteristics of these filters, a source of white light at a colour temperature of 2,854°K (corresponding to illuminant A of the International Commission on Illumination [CIE]) shall be used.

Annex 6. Domestic Driving Permit

1. A domestic driving permit shall take the form of a document.

2. The permit may be made of plastic or paper. The preferred format for the plastic permit shall be 54 x 86 mm in size. The preferred colour of the permit shall be pink; the print and spaces for the entries to be made shall be defined by domestic legislation subject to the provisions of paragraphs 6 and 7.

3. On the front side of the permit is the title “Driving Permit” in the domestic language (domestic languages) of the country issuing the permit, as well as the name and/or the distinguishing sign of the country which issued the permit.

4. It is compulsory to indicate in the permit the data listed under the numbers given below:
    1. Family name;
    2. Given name, other names;
    3. Date and place of birth;
   4.(a) Date of issue;
   4.(b) Expiry date;
   4.(c) Name or stamp of the authority which issued the permit;
   5. Number of the permit;
   6. Photograph of the holder;
   7. Signature of the holder;
   9. Categories (subcategories) of vehicles for which the permit is valid;
   12. Additional information or limitations for each category (subcategory) of vehicles in coded form.

5. If additional information is required by domestic legislation, it shall be entered on the driving permit under the numbers given below:
    4.(d) Identification number for the purposes of registration, other than the number under 5 of paragraph 4;
    8. Place of normal residence;
    10. Date of issue for each category (subcategory) of vehicles;
    11. Expiry date for each category (subcategory) of vehicles;
    13. Information for purposes of registration in the case of a change in country of normal residence;
    14. Information for purposes of registration or other information related to road traffic safety.

6. All the entries on the permit shall be made only in Latin characters. If other characters are used, the entries shall also be transliterated into the Latin alphabet.

7. The information under numbers 1-7 in paragraphs 4 and 5 should preferably be on the same side of the permit. The spaces for other data under numbers 8-14 in paragraphs 4 and 5 should be set by domestic legislation. Domestic legislation may also allocate a space on the permit for the inclusion of electronically stored information.

8. The categories of vehicles for which the driving permit may be valid are the following:
    A. Motorcycles;
    B. Motor vehicles, other than those in category A, having a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 3,500 kg and not more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg; or motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 3,500 kg;
    C. Motor vehicles, other than those in category D, having a permissible maximum mass exceeding 3,500 kg; or motor vehicles of category C coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg;
    D. Motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg;
    BE. Motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg and exceeds the unladen mass of the motor vehicle; or motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled exceeds 3,500 kg;
    CE. Motor vehicles of category C coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg;
    DE. Motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg.

9. Under categories A, B, C, CE, D and DE, domestic legislation may introduce the following subcategories of vehicles for which the driving permit may be valid:
    A1. Motorcycles with a cubic capacity not exceeding 125 cm3 and a power not exceeding 11 kW (light motorcycles);
    B1. Motor tricycles and quadricycles;
    C1. Motor vehicles, with the exception of those in category D, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 3,500 kg but does not exceed 7,500 kg; or motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg;
    D1. Motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than 8 seats in addition to the driver’s seat but not more than 16 seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg;
    C1E. Motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg;
    D1E. Motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, not used for the carriage of persons, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg.

10. Domestic legislation may introduce categories and subcategories of vehicle other than those listed above. The designations of such categories and subcategories should not resemble the symbols used in the Convention to designate categories and subcategories of vehicles; another type of print should also be used.

The new model is applicable from 29 March 2011.


Annex 7. International Driving Permit

1. The permit shall be a booklet in format A 6 (148 x 105 mm). The cover shall be grey and the inside pages white.

2. The outside and inside of the front cover shall conform, respectively, to model pages Nos. 1 and 2 below; they shall be printed in the national language, or in at least one of the national languages, of the issuing State. The last two inside pages shall be facing pages conforming to model No. 3; they shall be printed in French. The inside pages preceding these two pages shall repeat the first of them in several languages, which must include English, Russian and Spanish.

3. Handwritten or typed entries made on the permit shall be in Latin characters or in English cursive script.

4. Contracting Parties issuing or authorizing the issuance of international driving permits of which the cover is printed in a language other than English, French, Russian or Spanish shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the translation into that language of the text of model page No. 3.


E/CONF.56/16/Aev.1/Amend.1

 

 

 

 

ECONOMIC   COMMISSION   FOR EUROPE INLAND  TRANSPORT   COMMITTEE

 

 

CONVENTION ON ROAD TRAFFIC

DONE AT VIENNA ON 8 NOVEMBER 1968

 

Amendment 1 *

 

 

 

*Incorporating the amendments to the Convention which entered into force on 3 September 1993

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMMISSION ECONOMIQUE POUR L'EUROPE COMITE DES TRANSPORTS INTERIEURS

 

 

CONVENTION SUR LA CIRCULATION ROUTIERE

FAIT A VIENNE LE 8 NOVEMBRE 1968

 

Amendement 1 *

 

 

*Comprenant las amendements a la Convention sntres en vigueur le 3 septembre 1993

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CONVENTION ON ROAD TRAFFIC

 

 

 

 

The Contracting Parties,

 

Desiring to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety through the adoption of uniform traffic rules,

 

Have agreed upon the following provisions:

 

Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS ARTICLE 1

Definitions

 

For the purpose of this Convention the following expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them:

 

(a)  The "domestic legislation" of a Contracting Party means the entire body of national or local laws and regulations in force in the territory of that Contracting Party;

 

(b)  A vehicle is said to be "in international traffic" in the territory of a State if:

 

(i)   It is owned by a natural or legal person normally resident outside that State;

 

(ii)  It is not registered in that State; and

 

(iii)  It is temporarily imported into that State;

 

provided, however, that a Contracting Party may refuse to regard as being "in international traffic" a vehicle which has remained in its territory for more than one year without a substantial interruption, the duration of which may be fixed by that Contracting Party.

 

A combination of vehicles is said to be "in international traffic" if at least one of the vehicles in the combination conforms to the above definition;

 

(c)  "Built-up area" means an area with entries and exits specially signposted as such, or otherwise defined in domestic legislation;


(d)  "Road" means the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic;

 

(e)  "Carriageway" means the part of a road normally used by vehicular traffic; a road may comprise several carriageways clearly separated from one another by, for example, a dividing strip or a difference of level;

 

(f)  On carriageways where one or more side lanes or tracks are reserved for use by certain vehicles, "edge of the carriageway" means, for other road- users, the edge of the remainder of the carriageway;

 

(g)  "Lane" means any one of the longitudinal strips into which the carriageway is divisible, whether or not defined by longitudinal road markings, which is wide enough for one moving line of motor vehicles other than motor cycles;

 

(h)  "Intersection" means any level crossroad, junction or fork, including the open areas formed by such crossroads, junctions or forks;

 

(i)  "Level-crossing" means any level intersection between a road and a railway or tramway track with its own track formation;

 

(j)  "Motorway" means a road specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, and which:

 

(i)    Is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate           carriageways  for  the  two  directions  of  traffic, separated            from each other either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means;

 

(ii)    Does not cross at level with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; and

 

(iii)   Is specially signposted as a motorway; (k)  A vehicle is said to be:

(i)    "Standing" if it is stationary for the time needed to pick up or set down persons or to load or unload goods; and

 

(ii)    "Parked" if it is stationary for any reason other than the need to avoid interference with another road-user or collision with an obstruction or to comply with traffic regulations, and if the period during which the vehicle is stationary is not limited to the time needed to pick up or set down persons or goods;

 

Nevertheless,  it shall be open to Contracting  Parties to regard as "standing" any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (ii) above for a period not exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation, and to regard as "parked" any vehicle which is stationary within the meaning of subparagraph (i) above for a period exceeding that fixed by domestic legislation;


(l)  "Cycle" means any vehicle which has at least two wheels and is propelled solely by the muscular energy of the persons on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals or hand-cranks;

 

(m)  "Moped" means any two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicle which is fitted with an internal combustion engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cc and a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km (30 miles) per hour.  Contracting Parties are free, however, not to regard as mopeds, under their domestic legislation, vehicles which do not have the characteristics of a cycle with respect to their use, in particular the characteristic that they can be propelled by pedals, or whose maximum design speed, whose mass, or certain of whose engine characteristics exceed certain limits.   Nothing in this definition shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties from treating mopeds exactly as cycles in applying the provisions of their domestic legislation regarding road traffic;

 

(n)  "Motor cycle" means any two-wheeled vehicle, with or without a side- car, which is equipped with a propelling engine.  Contracting Parties may also treat as motor cycles in their domestic legislation three-wheeled vehicles whose unladen mass does not exceed 400 kg.  The term "motor cycle" does not include mopeds, although Contracting Parties may, provided they make a declaration to this effect in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention, treat mopeds as motor cycles for the purposes of the Convention;

 

(o)  "Power-driven vehicle" means any self-propelled road vehicle, other than a moped in the territories of Contracting Parties which do not treat mopeds as motor cycles, and other than a rail-borne vehicle;

 

(p)  "Motor vehicle" means any power-driven vehicle which is normally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods.  This term embraces trolley-buses, that is to say, vehicles connected to an electric conductor and not rail-borne.  It does not cover vehicles, such as agricultural tractors, which are only incidentally used for carrying persons or goods by road or for drawing, on the road, vehicles used for the carriage of persons or goods;

 

(q)  "Trailer" means any vehicle designed to be drawn by a power-driven vehicle and includes semi-trailers;

 

(r)  "Semi-trailer" means any trailer designed to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that part of it rests on the motor vehicle and that a substantial part of its mass and of the mass of its load is borne by the motor vehicle;

 

(s)  "Light trailer" means any trailer of a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 750 kg;

 

(t)  "Combination of vehicles" means coupled vehicles which travel on the road as a unit;

 

(u)  "Articulated vehicle" means a combination of vehicles comprising a motor vehicle and semi-trailer coupled to the motor vehicle;


(v)  "Driver" means any person who drives a motor vehicle or other vehicle (including a cycle), or who guides cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, or draught, pack or saddle animals on a road;

 

(w)  "Permissible maximum mass" means the maximum mass of the laden vehicle declared permissible by the competent authority of the State in which the vehicle is registered;

 

(x)  "Unladen mass" means the mass of the vehicle without crew, passengers or load, but with a full supply of fuel and with the tools which the vehicle normally carries;

 

(y)  "Laden mass" means the actual mass of the vehicle as loaded, with the crew and passengers on board;

 

(z)  "Direction of traffic" and "appropriate to the direction of traffic" mean the right-hand side if, under domestic legislation, the driver of a vehicle must allow an oncoming vehicle to pass on his left; otherwise these expressions mean the left-hand side;

 

(aa) The requirement that a driver shall "give way" to other vehicles means that he must not continue or resume his advance or manoeuvre if by so doing he might compel the drivers of other vehicles to change the direction or speed of their vehicle abruptly.

 

ARTICLE 2

 

Annexes to the Convention

 

The Annexes to this Convention, namely,

 

Annex 1:   Exceptions  to the obligation  to admit motor vehicles  and trailers in international traffic;

 

Annex 2:   Registration  number  of  motor  vehicles  and  trailers  in international traffic;

 

Annex 3:   Distinguishing  sign  of  motor  vehicles  and  trailers  in international traffic;

 

Annex 4:   Identification  marks  of  motor  vehicles  and  trailers  in international traffic;

 

Annex 5:   Technical conditions concerning motor vehicles and trailers; Annex 6:   Domestic driving permit; and

Annex 7:   International driving permit;

 

are integral parts of this Convention.


ARTICLE 3

 

Obligations of the Contracting Parties

 

1.   (a)  Contracting Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the rules of the road in force in their territories conform in substance to the provisions of Chapter II of this Convention.  Provided that the said rules are in no way incompatible with the said provisions:

 

(i)    The said rules need not reproduce any of the said provisions which are applicable to situations that do not arise in the territories of the Contracting Parties in question;

 

(ii)   The said rules may include provisions not contained in the said

Chapter II.

 

(b)  The provisions of this paragraph do not require Contracting Parties to provide penalties for any violation of those provisions of Chapter II which are reproduced in their rules of the road.

 

2.   (a)  Contracting Parties shall also take appropriate measures to ensure that the rules in force in their territories concerning the technical requirements to be satisfied by motor vehicles and trailers conform to the provisions of Annex 5 to this Convention; provided that they are in no way contrary to the safety principles governing the provisions of Annex 5, the said rules may contain provisions not contained in Annex 5.   Contracting Parties shall also take appropriate measures to ensure that motor vehicles and trailers registered in their territories conform to the provisions of Annex 5 to this Convention when entering international traffic.

 

(b)  The provisions of this paragraph do not impose any obligations on the Contracting Parties with respect to the rules in force in their territories concerning the technical requirements to be satisfied by power-driven vehicles which are not motor vehicles within the meaning of this Convention.

 

3.   Subject to the exceptions provided for in Annex 1 to this Convention, Contracting Parties shall be bound to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles and trailers which fulfil the conditions laid down in Chapter III of this Convention and whose drivers fulfil the conditions laid down in Chapter IV; they shall also be bound to recognize registration certificates issued in accordance with the provisions of Chapter III as prima facie evidence that the vehicles to which they refer fulfil the conditions laid down in the said Chapter III.

 

4.   Measures which the Contracting Parties have taken or may take, either unilaterally or under bilateral or multilateral agreements, to admit to their territories in international traffic motor vehicles and trailers that do not satisfy all the conditions stated in Chapter III of this Convention and to recognize, in cases other than those specified in Chapter IV, the validity in their  territories  of driving  permits  issued  in the territory  of another Contracting Party shall be deemed to be in conformity with the object of this Convention.


5.   Contracting Parties shall be bound to admit to their territories in international traffic cycles and mopeds which fulfil the technical conditions laid down in Chapter V of this Convention and whose drivers have their normal residence in the territory of another Contracting Party.  No Contracting Party shall require the drivers of cycles or mopeds in international traffic to hold a driving permit; however, Contracting Parties which have declared in conformity with Article 54, paragraph 2, of this Convention that they treat mopeds as motor cycles may require the drivers of mopeds in international traffic to hold a driving permit.

 

5 bis.  Contracting Parties will take the necessary measures to ensure that road safety education be provided on a systematic and continuous basis, particularly in schools at all levels.

 

5 ter.  Whenever  driving  instruction  for  learner  drivers  is  provided  by professional driving establishments, domestic legislation shall lay down minimum requirements concerning the curriculum and the qualifications of the personnel responsible for providing such instruction.

 

6.   Contracting Parties undertake to communicate to any Contracting Party, which may so request, the information necessary to ascertain the identity of the person in whose name a power-driven vehicle, or a trailer coupled to such a vehicle, is registered in their territories if the request submitted shows that the vehicle has been involved in an accident or the driver of this vehicle has seriously infringed road traffic rules and is thereby liable to important penalties or disqualification from driving in the territory of the Contracting Party submitting the request.

 

7.   Measures which the Contracting Parties have taken or may take either unilaterally or under bilateral or multilateral agreements to facilitate international road traffic by simplifying Customs, police, health and other similar formalities or to ensure that Customs offices and posts at a given frontier point have the same competence and are kept open during the same hours shall be deemed to be in conformity with the object of this Convention.

 

8.   Nothing in paragraphs 3, 5 and 7 of this Article shall affect the right of a Contracting Party to make the admission to its territory in international traffic of motor vehicles, trailers, mopeds and cycles, and of their drivers and occupants, subject to its regulations concerning the commercial carriage of passengers and goods, to its regulations concerning insurance of drivers against third-party risks, to its Customs regulations and, in general, to its regulations on matters other than road traffic.

 

 

ARTICLE 4

 

Signs and signals

 

Contracting Parties to this Convention which are not Contracting Parties to the Convention on Road Signs and Signals opened for signature at Vienna on the same day as this Convention undertake that:


 

(a)  All road signs, traffic light signals and road markings installed in their territory shall form a coherent system and shall be designed and placed in such a way as to be easily recognizable;

 

(b)  The number of types of sign shall be limited and signs shall be placed only at points where they are deemed useful;

 

(c)  Danger warning signs shall be installed at a sufficient distance from obstructions to give drivers adequate warning;

 

(d)  It shall be prohibited:

 

(i)    To affix to a sign, to its support or to any other traffic control device anything not related to the purpose of such sign or device; if, however, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof authorize a non-profit making association to install informative       signs,  they  may  permit  the  emblem  of  that association to appear on the sign or on its support provided this does not make it less easy to understand the sign;

 

(ii)    To install any board, notice, marking or device which might be confused with signs or other traffic control devices, might render    them  less  visible  or  effective,  or  might  dazzle road-users or distract their attention in a way prejudicial to traffic safety;

 

(iii)    To install on pavements and verges devices or equipment which might        unnecessarily  obstruct  the movement  of pedestrians, particularly elderly or disabled persons.

 

Chapter II RULES OF THE ROAD ARTICLE 5

Status of signs and signals

 

1.   Road-users shall comply with the instructions conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings even if the said instructions appear to contradict other traffic regulations.

 

2.   Instructions conveyed by traffic light signals shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs regulating priority.

 

ARTICLE 6

 

Instructions given by authorized officials

 

1.   When they are directing traffic, authorized officials shall be easily identifiable at a distance, at night as well as by day.


2.   Road-users  shall  promptly  obey all instructions  given  by authorized officials directing traffic.

 

3.   It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that directions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall include the following:

 

(a)  Arm raised upright:  this gesture shall mean "attention, stop" for all road-users except drivers who are no longer able to stop with sufficient safety; further, if made at an intersection, this gesture shall not require drivers already on the intersection to stop;

 

(b)  Arm or arms outstretched horizontally; this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for all road-users approaching from any direction which would cut across that indicated by the outstretched arm or arms; after making this gesture, the authorized official directing traffic may lower his arm or arms; this gesture shall likewise constitute a stop signal for drivers in front of or behind the official;

 

(c)  Swinging red light:  this gesture shall constitute a stop signal for road-users towards whom the light is directed.

 

4.   The instructions given by authorized officials directing traffic shall take precedence over those conveyed by road signs, traffic light signals and road markings, and over traffic regulations.

 

ARTICLE 7

 

General rules

 

1.   Road-users shall avoid any behaviour likely to endanger or obstruct traffic, to endanger persons, or to cause damage to public or private property.

 

2.   It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that road-users shall not obstruct traffic or risk making it dangerous by throwing, depositing or leaving any object or substance on the road or by creating any other obstruction on the road.  If road-users have been unable to avoid creating an obstruction or danger in that way, they shall take the necessary steps to remove it as soon as possible and, if they cannot remove it immediately, to warn other road-users of its presence.

 

3.   Drivers shall show extra care in relation to the most vulnerable road-users, such as pedestrians and cyclists and in particular children, elderly persons and the disabled.

 

4.   Drivers shall take care that their vehicles do not inconvenience road-users or the occupants of properties bordering on the road, for example, by causing noise or raising dust or smoke where they can avoid doing so.

 

5.   The wearing of safety belts is compulsory for drivers and passengers of motor vehicles, occupying seats equipped with such belts, save where exceptions are granted by domestic legislation.


ARTICLE 8

 

Drivers

 

1.   Every moving vehicle or combination of vehicles shall have a driver.

 

2.   It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that pack, draught or saddle animals, and, except in such special areas as may be marked at the entry, cattle, singly or in herds, or flocks, shall have a driver.

 

3.   Every driver shall possess the necessary physical and mental ability and be in a fit physical and mental condition to drive.

 

4.   Every driver of a power-driven vehicle shall possess the knowledge and skill necessary for driving the vehicle; however, this requirement shall not be a bar to driving practice by learner-drivers in conformity with domestic legislation.

 

5.   Every driver shall at all times be able to control his vehicle or to guide his animals.

 

ARTICLE 9

 

Flocks and herds

 

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that, save where exceptions are granted to facilitate their mass movement, flocks and herds should be divided into sections of moderate length spaced sufficiently far apart for the convenience of traffic.

 

ARTICLE 10

 

Position on the carriageway

 

1.   The direction of traffic shall be the same on all roads in a State except, where appropriate, on the roads used solely or principally by through traffic between two other States.

 

2.   Animals moving along the carriageway shall be kept as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic.

 

3.   Without  prejudice  to  the  provisions  to  the  contrary  of  Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 6, and to other provisions of this Convention to the contrary, every driver of a vehicle shall, to the extent permitted by circumstances, keep his vehicle near the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic.  However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down more precise rules concerning the position of goods vehicles on the carriageway.

 

4.   Where a road comprises two or three carriageways, no driver shall take the carriageway situated on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic.


5.   (a)  On two-way carriageways having four or more lanes, no driver shall take the lanes situated entirely on the half of the carriageway opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic.

 

(b)  On two-way carriageways having three lanes, no driver shall take the lane situated at the edge of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic.

 

6.   Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 11 and when an additional lane is indicated by a sign, drivers of vehicles moving slowly shall use that lane.

 

 

ARTICLE 11

 

Overtaking and movement of traffic in lines

 

1.   (a)  Drivers  overtaking  shall  do  so  on  the  side  opposite  to  that appropriate to the direction of traffic.

 

(b)  However  drivers  shall overtake on the side appropriate  to the direction of traffic if the driver to be overtaken has signalled his intention to turn to the side of the carriageway opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic and has moved his vehicle or animals over towards that side in order to turn to that side for the purpose of taking another road, to enter a property bordering on the road, or to stop on that side.

 

2.   Before overtaking, every driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, or to those of Article 14, of this Convention, make sure:

 

(a)  That no driver who is following him has begun to overtake him;

 

(b)  That the driver ahead of him in the same lane has not given warning of his intention to overtake another;

 

(c)  That he can do it without endangering or interfering with the oncoming traffic making sure in particular that the lane which he will enter is free over a sufficient distance and that the relative speed of the two vehicles allows overtaking within a sufficiently short time; and

 

(d)  That, except when using a lane closed to oncoming traffic, he will be able, without inconvenience to the road-user or road-users overtaken, to resume the position prescribed in Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention.

 

3.   In pursuance of the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, overtaking on two-way carriageways is in particular prohibited when approaching the crest of a hill and, if visibility is inadequate, on bends, unless there are at these points lanes defined by longitudinal road markings and overtaking is carried out without leaving the lanes marked as closed to oncoming traffic.

 

4.   When overtaking, a driver shall give the road-user or road-users overtaken a sufficiently wide berth.


5.   (a)  On carriageways with at least two lanes reserved for traffic moving in the direction in which he is proceeding, a driver who should be obliged, immediately or shortly after moving back to the position prescribed by Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention, to overtake again may, in order to perform that manoeuvre, and provided he makes sure he can do so without undue inconvenience to the drivers of faster vehicles approaching from behind, remain in the lane he has occupied for the first overtaking manoeuvre.

 

(b)  However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to apply the provisions of this paragraph to the drivers of cycles, mopeds, motor cycles and vehicles which are not motor vehicles within the meaning of this Convention, or to the drivers of motor vehicles whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 3,500 kg or whose maximum speed, by design, cannot exceed 40 km (25 miles) per hour.

 

6.   Where the provisions of subparagraph 5 (a) of this Article are applicable and the density of traffic is such that vehicles not only occupy the entire width of the carriageway reserved for traffic taking the direction in which they are moving but also are moving only at a speed which is governed by that of the vehicle preceding them in the line:

 

(a)  Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the movement of the vehicles in one line at a higher speed than that of those in another shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Article;

 

(b)  A driver not in the lane nearest to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic may change lanes only in order to prepare to turn right or left or to park; however, this requirement shall not apply to changes of lane effected by drivers in accordance with domestic legislation resulting from the application of the provisions of paragraph 5 (b) of this Article.

 

7.   When moving in lines as described in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this Article, drivers are forbidden,  if the lanes are indicated  on the carriageway  by longitudinal markings, to straddle these markings.

 

8.   Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article and to other restrictions which Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may lay down concerning overtaking at intersections and at level-crossings, no driver of a vehicle shall overtake a vehicle other than a two-wheeled cycle, a two-wheeled moped or a two-wheeled motor cycle without side-car:

 

(a)  Immediately before or on an intersection other than a roundabout, except:

(i)  In the case provided for in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article; (ii)  Where the road on which overtaking takes place has priority at

the intersection;

 

(iii)   Where traffic is directed at the intersection by an authorized official or by traffic light signals;


(b)  Immediately before or on a level-crossing not equipped with gates or half-gates, provided however that Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free to permit such overtaking at a level-crossing where road traffic is regulated by traffic light signals incorporating a positive signal authorizing vehicles to proceed.

 

9.   A vehicle shall not overtake another vehicle which is approaching a pedestrian crossing marked on the carriageway or signposted as such, or which is stopped immediately before the crossing, otherwise than at a speed low enough to enable it to stop immediately if a pedestrian is on the crossing.  Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof from prohibiting overtaking within a prescribed distance from a pedestrian crossing, or from imposing stricter requirements on a driver of a vehicle proposing to overtake another vehicle stopped immediately before such a crossing.

 

10.  A driver who perceives that a driver following him wishes to overtake him shall, except in the case provided for in Article 16, paragraph 1 (b) of this Convention, keep close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic and refrain from accelerating.  If, owing to the narrowness, profile or condition of the carriageway, taken in conjunction with the density of oncoming traffic, a vehicle which is slow or bulky or is required to observe a speed limit cannot be easily and safely overtaken, the driver of such vehicle shall slow down and if necessary pull in to the side as soon as possible in order to allow vehicles following him to overtake.

 

11.  (a)  Contracting  Parties  or  subdivisions  thereof  may,  on  one-way carriageways and on two-way carriageways where at least two lanes in built-up areas and three lanes outside built-up areas are reserved for traffic in the same direction and are indicated by longitudinal markings:

 

(i)   Allow vehicles in one lane to overtake on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic vehicles in another lane; and

 

(ii)   Make inapplicable the provisions of Article 10, paragraph 3, of this Convention;

 

provided that there are adequate restrictions on the possibility of changing lanes;

 

(b)  In the case referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph, without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 9 of this Article, the manner of driving provided for shall not be deemed to constitute overtaking within the meaning of this Convention.

 

 

ARTICLE 12

 

Passing of oncoming traffic

 

1.   When passing oncoming traffic, a driver shall leave sufficient lateral space and, if necessary, move close to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic.  If in so doing he finds his progress impeded by an


obstruction or by the presence of other road-users, he shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow the oncoming road-user or road-users to pass.

 

2.   On mountain roads and steep roads with characteristics similar to those of mountain roads, where the passing of oncoming traffic is impossible or difficult, it is the driver of the vehicle travelling downhill who should pull in to the side of the road in order to allow any vehicle proceeding uphill to pass, except where the arrangement of lay-bys to enable vehicles to pull in to the side of the road is such that, having regard to the speed and position of the vehicles, the vehicle proceeding uphill has a lay-by ahead of it and the need for one of the vehicles to reverse could be avoided if the vehicle proceeding uphill pulled in to that lay- by.  Where one of the two vehicles which are about to pass is obliged to reverse in order to make passing possible, this manoeuvre shall be performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding downhill unless it can manifestly be more easily performed by the driver of the vehicle proceeding uphill.  However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may prescribe for certain vehicles or certain roads or sections of roads special rules differing from those laid down in this paragraph.

 

 

ARTICLE 13

 

Speed and distance between vehicles

 

1.   Every driver of a vehicle shall in all circumstances have his vehicle under control so as to be able to exercise due and proper care and to be at all times in a position to perform all manoeuvres required of him.  He shall, when adjusting the speed of his vehicle, pay constant regard to the circumstances, in particular the lie of the land, the state of the road, the condition and load of his vehicle, the weather conditions and the density of traffic, so as to be able to stop his vehicle  within his range of forward  vision and short of any foreseeable obstruction.  He shall slow down and if necessary stop whenever circumstances so require, and particularly when visibility is not good.

 

2.   Domestic legislation shall establish maximum speed limits for all roads. Domestic legislation shall also determine special speed limits applicable to certain categories of vehicles presenting a special danger, in particular by reason of their mass or their load.  They may establish similar provisions for certain categories of drivers, in particular for new drivers.

 

3.   The provisions set out in the first sentence of paragraph 2 may not apply to drivers of priority vehicles referred to in article 34, paragraph 2, or vehicles treated as such in domestic legislation.

 

4.   No driver shall impede the normal progress of other vehicles by travelling abnormally slowly without proper cause.

 

5.   The driver of a vehicle moving behind another vehicle shall keep at a sufficient distance from that other vehicle to avoid collision if the vehicle in front should suddenly slow down or stop.

 

6.   Outside built-up areas, in order to facilitate overtaking, drivers of vehicles or combinations of vehicles of more than 3,500 kg permissible maximum mass, or of more than 10 m overall length, shall, except when they are overtaking


or preparing to overtake, keep at such distance from power-driven vehicles ahead of them that other vehicles overtaking them can without danger move into the space in front of the overtaken vehicle.  However, this provision shall not apply in very dense traffic or in circumstances where overtaking is prohibited.   In addition:

 

(a)  The competent authorities may exempt certain conveys of vehicles from this provision, or may similarly make it inapplicable on roads where two lanes are allotted to traffic in the direction concerned;

 

(b)  Contracting Parties and subdivisions thereof may prescribe different figures  from  those  given  in this  paragraph  with  respect  to the vehicle characteristics concerned.

 

ARTICLE 14

 

General requirements governing manoeuvres

 

1.   Any driver wishing to perform a manoeuvre such as pulling out of or into a line of parked vehicles, moving over to the right or to the left on the carriageway, or turning left or right into another road or into a property bordering on the road, shall first make sure that he can do so without risk of endangering other road-users travelling behind or ahead of him or about to pass him, having regard to their position, direction and speed.

 

2.   Any driver wishing to make a U-turn or to reverse shall first make sure that he can do so without endangering or impeding other road-users.

 

3.   Before turning or before a manoeuvre which involves moving laterally, the driver shall give clear and sufficient warning of his intention by means of the direction-indicator or direction-indicators on his vehicle, or, failing this, by giving if possible an appropriate signal with his arm.  The warning given by the direction-indicator or direction-indicators shall continue to be given throughout the manoeuvre and shall cease as soon as the manoeuvre is completed.

 

 

ARTICLE 15

 

Special regulations relating to regular public-transport service vehicles

 

It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide that in built-up areas, in order to facilitate the movement of regular public-transport service vehicles, the drivers of other vehicles shall, subject to the provisions of Article 17, paragraph 1, of this Convention, slow down and if necessary stop in order to allow the public-transport vehicles to perform the manoeuvre required for moving off from stops marked as such.   The provisions thus laid down by Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall in no way affect the duty incumbent on drivers of public-transport vehicles to take, after having given warning by means of their direction-indicators of their intention to move off, the precautions necessary to avoid any risk of accident.


ARTICLE 16

 

Change of direction

 

1.   Before turning right or left for the purpose of entering another road or entering a property bordering on the road, a driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, and of Article 14, of this Convention:

 

(a)  If he wishes to turn off on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway appropriate to that direction and make as tight a turn as possible;

 

(b)  If he wishes to turn off on the other side, and subject to such other provisions as Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may enact for cycles and mopeds, move as close as possible to the centreline of the carriageway if it is a two-way carriageway or to the edge opposite to the side appropriate to the direction of traffic if it is a one-way carriageway and, if he wishes to enter another two-way road, make his turn so as to enter the carriageway of such other road on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic.

 

2.   While changing direction, the driver shall, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 21 of this Convention regarding pedestrians, allow oncoming vehicles on the carriageway he is preparing to leave, and cycles and mopeds moving on cycle tracks crossing the carriageway he is about to enter, to pass.

 

 

ARTICLE 17

 

Slowing down

 

1.   No driver of a vehicle shall brake abruptly unless it is necessary to do so for safety reasons.

 

2.   Every driver intending to slow down to an appreciable extent shall, except where his slowing down is in response to an imminent danger, first make sure that he can do so without danger or undue inconvenience to other drivers.  He shall also, unless he has made sure that there is no vehicle following him or that any following vehicle is a long way behind, give clear and timely warning of his intention by making an appropriate signal with his arm.  However, this provision shall not apply if warning of slowing down in given by the vehicle's stop lights, referred to in Annex 5, paragraph 31, of this Convention.

 

 

ARTICLE 18

 

Intersections and obligation to give way

 

1.   Every driver approaching an intersection shall exercise such extra care as may be appropriate to local conditions.  Drivers of vehicles shall, in particular, drive at such a speed as to be able to stop to allow vehicles having the right of way to pass.


2.   Every driver emerging from a path or an earth-track (dirt road) on to a road other than a path or an earth-track shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road.  For the purposes of this Article the terms "path" and "earth-track" (dirt road) may be defined in domestic legislation.

 

3.   Every driver emerging on to a road from a property bordering thereon shall give way to vehicles travelling on that road.

 

4.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 7 of this Article:

 

(a)  In States where traffic keeps to the right the driver of a vehicle shall give way, at intersections other than those specified in paragraph 2 of this Article and in Article 25, paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Convention, to vehicles approaching from his right;

 

(b)  Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof in whose territories traffic keeps to the left shall be free to regulate the right of way at intersections as they see fit.

 

5.   Even if traffic light signals authorize him to do so, a driver shall not enter an intersection if the density of traffic is such that he will probably be obliged to stop on the intersection, thereby obstructing or preventing the passage of cross traffic.

 

6.   A driver who has entered an intersection where traffic is regulated by traffic light signals may clear the intersection without waiting for the way to be opened in the direction in which he wishes to proceed, provided that this does not impede the progress of other road-users moving in the open direction.

 

7.   Drivers of vehicles not moving on rails shall give way to rail-borne vehicles.

 

ARTICLE 19

 

Level-crossings

 

Road-users shall exercise extra care in approaching and traversing level- crossings.  In particular:

 

(a)  Every driver of a vehicle shall drive at a moderate speed;

 

(b)  Without prejudice to the obligation to obey an instruction to stop given by a light signal or a sound signal, no road-user shall enter a level- crossing at which the gates or half-gates are across the road or in process of being placed across the road, or at which the half-gates are in process of being raised;

 

(c)  If a level-crossing is not equipped with gates, half-gates or light signals, no road-user shall enter it without making sure that no rail-borne vehicle is approaching;

 

(d)  No driver shall enter a level-crossing without first ascertaining that he may not be obliged to stop on it;


(e)  No road-user shall linger while traversing a level crossing; if a vehicle is compelled to stop, its driver shall endeavour to move it off the track, and, if he is unable to do so, immediately do everything he can to ensure that the drivers of rail-borne vehicles are warned of the danger in time.

 

 

ARTICLE 20

 

Rules applicable to pedestrians

 

1.   Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof shall be free not to enforce the provisions of this Article except in cases where pedestrian traffic on the carriageway would be dangerous or would obstruct vehicular traffic.

 

2.   If, at the side of the carriageway, there are pavements (sidewalks) or suitable verges for pedestrians, pedestrians shall use them.  Nevertheless, if they take the necessary precautions:

 

(a)  Pedestrians pushing or carrying bulky objects may use the carriageway if they would seriously inconvenience other pedestrians by walking on the pavement (sidewalk) or verge;

 

(b)  Groups of pedestrians  led by a person in charge or forming a procession may walk on the carriageway.

 

3.   If it is not possible to use pavements (sidewalks) or verges, or if none is provided, pedestrians may walk on the carriageway; where there is a cycle track and the density of traffic so permits, they may walk on the cycle track, but shall not obstruct cycle and moped traffic in doing so.

 

4.   Pedestrians walking on the carriageway in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall keep as close as possible to the edge of the carriageway.

 

5.   It is recommended that domestic legislation should provide as follows: pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall keep to the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic except where to do so places them in danger.  However, persons pushing a cycle, a moped or a motor cycle, and groups of pedestrians led by a person in charge or forming a procession shall in all cases keep to the side of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic. Unless they form a procession, pedestrians walking on the carriageway shall, by night or when visibility is poor and, by day, if the density of vehicular traffic so requires, walk in single file wherever possible.

 

6.   (a)  Pedestrians wishing to cross a carriageway shall not step on to it without exercising care; they shall use a pedestrian crossing whenever there is one nearby.

 

(b)   In order to cross the carriageway at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway:

 

(i)    If the crossing is equipped with light signals for pedestrians, the latter shall obey the instructions given by such lights;


(ii)    If the crossing is not equipped with such lights, but vehicular traffic          is  regulated  by  traffic  light  signals  or  by  an authorized          official,  pedestrians  shall  not  step onto the carriageway while the traffic light signal or the signal given by the authorized official indicates that vehicles may proceed along it;

 

(iii)    At other pedestrian crossings, pedestrians shall not step on to the      carriageway  without  taking the distance and speed of approaching vehicles into account.

 

(c)  In order to cross the carriageway elsewhere than at a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway, pedestrians shall not step on to the carriageway without first making sure that they can do so without impeding vehicular traffic.

 

(d)  Once they have started to cross a carriageway, pedestrians shall not take an unnecessarily long route, and shall not linger or stop on the carriageway unnecessarily.

 

7.   However, Contracting Parties or subdivisions thereof may impose stricter requirements on pedestrians crossing the carriageway.

 

 

ARTICLE 21

 

Behaviour of drivers towards pedestrians

 

1.   Every driver shall avoid behaviour likely to endanger pedestrians.

 

2.   Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 7, paragraph 1, Article 11, paragraph 9, and Article 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention, where there is on the carriageway a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway:

 

(a)  If vehicular traffic is regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers forbidden to proceed shall stop short of the crossing or the transverse markings preceding it and, when they are permitted to proceed, shall not prevent or obstruct the passage of pedestrians who have stepped on to it; drivers turning into another road at the entrance to which there is a pedestrian crossing shall do so slowly and give way, if necessary stopping for this purpose, to pedestrians already using, or about to use, the crossing;

 

(b)  If vehicular traffic is not regulated at that crossing by traffic light signals or by an authorized official, drivers shall approach the crossing only at a speed low enough not to endanger pedestrians using, or about to use, it; if necessary, they shall stop to allow such pedestrians to cross.

 

3.   No provision of this Article shall be construed as preventing Contracting

Parties or subdivisions thereof from:


Requiring drivers of vehicles to stop in all cases when pedestrians are using, or about to use, a pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway in the conditions laid down in Article 20 of this Convention, or

 

Prohibiting them from preventing or obstructing the passage of pedestrians who are crossing the carriageway at or very near an intersection even if there is at that point no pedestrian crossing signposted as such or indicated by markings on the carriageway.

 

4.   Drivers intending to overtake, on the side appropriate to the direction of traffic, a public transport vehicle at a stop marked as such shall slow down and if necessary stop to allow passengers to board or alight from that vehicle.

 

ARTICLE 22

 

Islands on the carriageway

 

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 10 of this Convention, a driver may pass to the left or to the right of islands, posts and other devices set up on the carriageway on which he is travelling, except in the following cases:

 

(a)  Where the side on which the island, post or device shall be passed is indicated by a sign;

 

(b)  Where the island, post or device is on the centre-line of a two-way carriageway; in this case