Updated: Thursday January 14, 2010/AlKhamis Muharram 29, 1431/Bruhaspathivara Pausa 24, 1931, at 07:05:42 PM
Paper 1 – Constitutional Law II – Questions:
1. Discuss the salient features of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. 1994, 1996, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1998.
2. What do you understand by Fundamental Rights? Explain some of them. 1994, 1995, 1998, 1999
3. Write a detailed note on the composition of Parliament of Pakistan under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 1994, 1995, 1995, 1997, 1997.
4. What are the safeguards of citizens regarding “Preventive Detention”? 1994, 1996, 1997, 1997.
Write a comprehensive note on the powers and
position of the president of
6. Discuss the powers and jurisdiction of the High Courts under Article 199 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1999.
7. Critically examine the Islamic provisions under the 1973 Constitution. 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998.
8. What is the procedure of amendment of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. 1994, 1996, 1997.
Discuss the powers and jurisdiction of the
10. Write short on the following: Islamic Ideology Council and Election Commission of Pakistan. 1994, 1999.
11. Discuss the Principles of Policy as laid down in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. 1995, 1995, 1999.
12. Write a comprehensive note on the Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan under the present constitution. 1995, 1997.
13. Discuss the relations between Federation and Provinces under the Constitution of 1973. 1995, 1995, 1995, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1999.
14. Discuss the powers and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Pakistan. 1995, 1995, 1999.
15. Discuss the various points of Emergencies and in whom the power is vested under the Constitution. 1995, 1995, 1996, 1997.
16. What are the functions of the Supreme Judicial Council? How is it constituted under the present Constitution. 1995, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1998.
18. Write detailed notes on the following: Speaker of the National Assembly and Council of Common Interest. 1995, 1995, 1996, 1997.
19. Discuss the salient features of the late Constitution of 1956 of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 1995, 1995, 1997.
20. What was the Objectives Resolution 1949? Explain. 1995, 1997, 1997, 1999.
21. Write a comprehensive note on the President of Pakistan. 1995, 1998.
22. Describe the role of National Assembly while Emergency is in force. 1995
the case of Miss Asma Jilani
versus The Government of the
24. What are the qualifications for the office of a Governor? Discuss the powers of the Governor under 1973 Constitution. 1996, 1999.
25. Discuss the important provisions relating to the Parliament in the 1973 Constitution. 1996
26. Explain the constitution of High Court and describe the necessary qualifications of appointment of a Judge. 1996
27. Discuss the concept of Federation with reference to the 1973 Constitution. 1996
28. Write notes on Attorney General. 1996.
29. What form of Government was established under the Constitution of 1962? What were the causes for its failure? 1996
30. Critically examine and explain in detail the salient features of the Indian Independence Act, 1947. 1996, 1997.
31. Write detailed notes on the National Finance Commission. 1997
32. Describe the financial procedure followed by the Parliament of Pakistan. 1998
33. What are the qualifications and disqualification for the members of Parliament? 1998, 1999.
34. Describe the procedure of Amendment under the 1973 Constitution. What major amendments have been made in the Constitution? 1998
35. Write a comprehensive note on Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commission. 1998
36. Explain the salient features of 1962 Constitutions. 1998
37. Discuss Maulvi Tameezuddin Case. 1998
the Legislative Procedure under 1973 Constitution for Parliament of
a detailed note on the 8th. Amendment of the Constitution of
40. Describe the provisions of Article 234 of the Constitution. 1998
41. Explain the composition and functions of the Provincial Assemblies. 1998
42. Discuss Nusrat Bhutto’s case (Nusrat Bhutto Vs COAS, 1977). 1998
43. Compare 1956 Constitution with 1973 Constitution. 1998
44. Explain the general principles relating to the parliamentary procedure provided in the Constitution. 1999
45. Write a comprehensive note on the parliamentary system of Government under 1973 Constitution. 1999
Paper 2 – Equity – Questions:
1. Explain the following maxims: Equity shall not suffer a wrong to be without remedy and Equity looks to the intent rather than to the form. 1994, 1995, 1997
2. Explain the following maxims: He who seeks equity must do equity and He who comes to equity, must come with clean hands. 1994, 1997
3. Write short notes on: Equitable rights and interests and Legal estate and equitable estate. 1994
4. Explain the following: Doctrine of Election and Restitution of benefits on cancellation of transactions. 1994
5. What are the requisites of a valid trust? How is a trust created and when does it become extinct. 1994, 1995, 1995.
6. Define a trustee. Give a detailed account of his rights and liabilities. 1994, 1995.
7. What remedy is available to a beneficiary if the trustee wrongfully buys trust property in this own name of transfers the same to a third person inconsistently with the trust. 1994
8. Define and explain the following: Actual Trust and Implied Trust and Constructive Trust. 1994
9. What are the contracts the specific performance of which cannot be obtained by the plaintiff. 1994
10. What is Specific Relief. How is it given? Discus giving examples. 1994
11. Discuss the law regarding the recovery of possession of immovable property. 1994
12. Under what circumstance can an instrument be cancelled? Discuss in detail. 1994
13. Explain the following Maxims: Where there is equal equity, law shall prevail and where there is equal equity first in time shall prevail. 1995, 1995, 1997
14. Explain the following Maxims: Equity acts in Personam and Delay defeats Equity. 1995, 1997
15. Explain the following: Doctrine of Conversion and Doctrine of Priority. 1995, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 1999.
16. Explain the following: Equity of Redemption and Doctrine of Cyprus. 1995
17. When can a trustee be discharged from his office? 1995, 1998, 1999.
18. What constitutes a breach of trust? What defenses are available against breach of trust. 1995
19. What are the powers of a Court to appoint a new trustee under the Trust Act? 1995
20. Give a detailed account of the law on ratification of instrument. Who can claim it and under what circumstances. 1995, 1997, 1998.
21. What is the difference between temporary and permanent injunction. Write in detail giving examples. 1995, 1996, 1999.
22. What are the guiding principles for the grant of a temporary injunction. Discuss in detail. 1995, 1997.
23. Who cannot be asked for the grant of the specific performance of a contract. 1995
24. One who seeks equity must do equity. Please explain. 1995, 1998, 1999.
25. What are the various kinds of trusts? Explain briefly. 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999.
26. Briefly state the disabilities of the trustees. 1995, 1998, 1999.
27. What is a declaration and what are the powers of a Court with regard thereto? 1995
28. What are the guiding principles for the grant of an injunction? 1995
29. When can cancellation of an instrument be orders? 1995
30. What are contracts, which may be enforced specifically? 1995, 1997, 1999.
31. Explain Equity delighteth in equity. 1996.
32. Equity looks to the intent than form. Please elaborate. 1996, 1997, 1998.
33. Please comment Equity looks upon that, as done which ought to have been done. 1996
34. What is meant by restitution of benefits on conciliation of transactions. 1996
35. Define any three of the following: Trust and Trust Property and Beneficial Interest and Breach of trust. 1996
36. What do you understand by Constructive Trust? Explain. 1996
37. What are the rights & duties of a Beneficiary? 1996, 1999.
38. How is the trust extinguished? 1996
39. Who may obtain a specific performance of a contract? 1996
40. Court orders for specific performance of contract as a whole. Are there any exceptions to this rule? Please explain. 1996
41. How is specific relief given? 1996
42. Discuss as to how a trust can be extinguished. 1997, 1997.
43. Explain when can a trustee delegate any of his duties to a co-trustee or a stranger. 1997
44. Explain declaration. Discuss the procedure for declaration of rights as given in the Specific Relief Act. 1997
45. Discuss circumstances under which the Court refuses preventive relief. 1997
46. Discuss the maxim equity acts in personam. 1997, 1998.
47. A trustee shall not profit by his trust. Explain. 1997
48. Enumerate and explain the duties of a trustee. 1997
49. Discuss the procedure for the recovery of immovable property under the Specific Relief Act. 1997
50. Enumerate and briefly explain contracts, which cannot be specifically enforced. 1997
51. Write short notes on: Rectification of instruments and Cancellation of instruments. 1997
52. What is meant by preventive relief and how the Court grants it. 1997
53. Explain in detail. Where there are equal equities, first in time shall prevail. 1998
54. What are the rights and duties of a trustee under Trusts Act, 1882? 1997, 1997, 1998.
55. When liabilities in the nature of a trust may be created. 1998
56. What are the liabilities, which may be imposed on a beneficiary of a trust? 1998
57. Court always orders for specific performance as a whole. Are there any exceptions to this general rule? Discuss. 1998
58. Against whom a contract may and may not be enforced specifically. 1998
59. What do you mean by declaration of rights and how courts issue such orders. 1998
60. What do you mean by injunctions? Discuss its different kinds. 1998,
61. Explain Equity follows the law. 1998, 1999
62. Discuss the following principles: Election and Notice. 1998
63. Explain the maxim, Where there are equal equities, the law shall prevail. 1998, 1999
64. What are the lawful objects of trust? Explain the effects of unlawful object with reference to the relevant provisions of law. 1998
65. What are the rights and liabilities of a trustee? 1998
66. What is specific relief. How it may be granted. 1998
67. Under what circumstances a Court may refuse to grant injunction. 1998
68. What do you mean by equitable remedies and how are they granted. 1999
69. What do you mean by Specific performance of contract? Discuss the contracts, which may be enforced specifically. 1999
Paper 3 – Mercantile Law – Questions:
1. Give an account of decision in Saloman versus Saloman & Co. Ltd. 1994, 1995, 1998, 1999.
2. What are the main differences between a company limited by shares and a partnership? 1994, 1995.
3. In what various ways a person become a member of a company and cease to be a member of a company. 1994, 1998.
4. What do a registered debenture, bearer debenture and perpetual debenture mean? 1994, 1998.
5. What are obligations of companies, which do not issue prospectus? 1994
6. Write a comprehensive note on law and procedure of transfer of shares in a company registered under Companies Ordinance. 1994
7. Although sharing of profits was essential element of the definition of partnership, but it is not the sole test. Comment. 1994
8. Define a negotiable instrument. What is the difference between a promissory note and a charge? 1994, 1997.
9. What are the special rules of evidence relating to a negotiable instrument? 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998.
10. Enumerate the constitution, power and functions of corporate law Authority. Under what circumstances can Authority refer the matter to Court? 1995, 1997.
11. What do you understand by the term promoter of a Company. Enumerate their rights, duties, and liabilities. 1995, 1998.
12. How may a company reduce its share capital? In what cases may a company’s creditors object to reduction of capital? 1995, 1998.
13. When and for what purposes a statutory meeting, ordinary general meeting and extraordinary general meeting are held. 1995, 1998.
14. In Court winds up what cases may a company. At what moment does a winding up by Court commence. 1995, 1994, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1999.
15. Distinguish between a private and public limited company, registered under the Companies Ordinance. 1995, 1995, 1998.
16. Can a minor become a partner in a firm? Discuss rights and liabilities of a minor admitted to benefits of partnership. 1995
17. Define and distinguish between a promissory note and a bill of exchange & cheques. 1995, 1998, 1999.
18. Explain the difference between Noting and Protest. What are the particulars, which Protest must contain? 1995, 1998, 1999.
19. Discuss the statutory liability both civil and criminal, which arises as a result of un-true statement in a prospectus. 1995, 1997.
20. What are the qualification, power and liabilities of a director? Under what circumstances his office falls vacant. 1995, 1998.
21. Describe the law relating to appointment, powers, and duties of an auditor. 1995, 1997.
22. What are the effects of dissolution of a company explain the doctrine of holding out. Is the estate of a deceased partner liable for acts of the firm done after his death? 1994, 1995.
23. Can a cutting partner carry on business competing with that of the firm? What restriction is place on him by the partnership Act? 1995
24. What is the maturity of an instrument and what are the rules for determining maturity? 1995
25. What is a memorandum of association? In what respects can it be altered? 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1997, 1998, 1999.
26. Write a note on articles of association and distinguish them from memorandum of association. 1995, 1995, 1997, 1999.
27. What is the procedure by adopting which a private company can convert itself into a public company? 1997
28. Write a comprehensive note on a foreign company. 1997
29. Write notes on the following: (a) Partnership at will. (b) Particular partnership. 1997
30. What are the nature and incidents of good will? How is good will divided between partners on dissolution? 1997
31. Discuss the privileges enjoyed by holder in due course. 1997
32. What are the modes in which maker, acceptor or endorser of a negotiable instrument is discharged? 1997
33. Define a debenture. State its contents. Enumerate the remedies of a debenture holder and how can they be enforced? 1997
34. Write a comprehensive note on foreign company. 1997
35. State clearly the mutual rights and duties of the partners of a firm. 1997
36. Explain what is meant by “good will”. 1997
37. Define and explain the “holder” and holder in due course”. 1997
38. Although sharing of profits is an essential element of the definition of partnership but it is not the sole test. Comment. 1998
39. Explain the doctrine of holding out. Is the estate of a deceased partner liable for acts of a firm done after his death? 1998
40. What is a negotiable instrument? Explain its special characteristics. 1998
41. Explain fully the doctrine of “indoor Management”. Are there any exceptions to this doctrine? 1998
42. Give the majority and period of notice required in order to validly pass (a) special resolution (B) ordinary resolution and (C) resolution requiring special notice.1995, 1995, & 1998.
43. Define partnership. Discuss the essential elements of the definition of partnership? Discuss in detail the grounds on which Court may dissolve the firm. 1998
44. Define statement in lieu of prospectus. Under what circumstances is the filing of such a statement required? 1999
45. Write a comprehensive note on the law and procedure of transfer of shares in a company registered under the Companies Ordinance. 1999
46. What are implied authorities of a partner? What matters have been excluded specifically from such authority by the act? 1999
47. What are the contents of the application for registration of a firm? What are the effects of non-registration? 1999
Paper 4 – Laws of Transfer of Property – Questions:
1. State and discuss fraudulent transfer of property as laid down in the Act. 1994
2. Explain the doctrine of LIS PENDENS during a suit as understood with reference to transfer of property. 1994, 1995.
3. What are the rights and liabilities of a buyer of property? Explain “sale” of property. 1994
4. What is a mortgage? Describe different kinds of mortgage and give details of essential ingredients of each. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999.
5. State if the following documents require compulsory registration. Also refer to law on the subject: Mortgage deed, receipt evidencing payment of mortgage money, Agreement to sell, Power-of-attorney.
7. Who can present a document for registration? Explain if the registering authority may make an Enquirer before registering the document. 1994, 1995, 1995, 1997, 1997, 1999.
8. What is the remedy available to a person aggrieved of the award? 1994
9. Please discuss the principle laid in S. 53-A of the Act. 1995
10. Who is an Ostensible Owner? Please explain transfer of property by such owner. 1995, 1997, 1997.
11. Define a gift. How is transfer of property affected by gift? In what way it is different from gift under Mohammadan Law? 1995, 1997, 1999.
12. Enumerate the principle with reference to time from which a registered document shall take effect. 1995, 1997, 1999.
13. What are the rights of a person who is prior in possession under an unregistered document? 1995, 1995, 1997.
14. What is a “Succession Certificate”? Which Court is competent to grant it and what is the procedure to get it? 1995, 1995, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 1999.
15. Under what provisions of Land Acquisition Act does the Collector take over possession of land in ordinary ad extraordinary circumstances? Please discuss the law regarding payment of compensation in both cases. 1994, 1995, 1995, 1997.
16. What is the difference between a reference to Court under Section 18 and Section 30 of the Act? 1995, 1995, 1999.
17. What is the status of owner of property purchased bona-fide in good faith. Can his title be challenged. If so, on what ground. 1995
18. Describe the relationship between a benamidar and real owner or property. 1995
19. What is the value of transfer to property while a suit is pending regarding it. 1995
20. Under what circumstances a Collector may take possession of property without payment of compensation. 1995
21. Under what circumstances a Collector may not pay compensation. 1995
22. Write detailed notes on: Redemption. Foreclosure. Accession to mortgage property. Marshalling. 1996, 1999
23. What are the rights and liabilities of a Seller? 1996
24. Please state whether the following documents require compulsory registration. Give reasons in each case: A lease deed for a period of 2 years. A memorandum of a past gift. Compensation deed. An instrument of partition issued by a revenue officer. 1996
25. How far is an executor, administrator or a legatee to account for the property of the deceased? 1996, 1999.
26. What are the duties and powers of a Registry Officer regarding the documents presented to him for registration under the Registration Act? 1995, 1995, 1996, 1998.
What matters would be ignored by the
28. How and when an award of compensation under the Land Acquisition Act becomes final. What is the nature of proceedings before a Land Acquisition Collector? 1996
29. What do you understand by transfer of property? What is its effect and who can transfer a property. 1995, 1997.
30. What is Award under the Land Acquisition Act? What procedure is adopted by the Land Acquisition Collector to make award of land under the said Act? 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1997, 1999.
31. When is a usufructuary mortgagor entitled to recover possession of mortgage-property? 1997
32. Define sale. What is the difference between a sale deed and a deed of contract of sale? 1997
33. Is registration of sale deed of an immovable property necessary. 1997
34. What remedies is available to the seller for the un-paid price promised to be paid after one year of the completion of sale. 1997
Are the following documents compulsory
36. Compromise decree comprising immovable property other than that, which is the subject mater of the suit. 1997
37. What is the effect of non-registration of a document, which requires registration? 1997, 1998.
38. Write a short note on the special powers of the provincial government in case of emergency. 1997
39. What do you know about the reference to Court and the procedure thereon? 1997
40. Before the grant of probate, when and how can the district judge interfere for the protection of property? 1997
41. Define & explain: Immovable property. Instrument. Attested. Registered. Attached to earth. What do you mean by transfer of property? What is its effect and who can transfer it. 1998
42. Can a transfer of property be made for the benefit of an unborn person. Explain. 1998
43. Explain in detail the following: Marshalling securities. Redeem up forecloses down. Tacking. Contribution. 1998
44. What do you mean by accession? Write in detail on it. 1998
45. Discuss in detail the procedure to be adopted for making an award. When does it become final? 1998
46. What do you understand by reference to the Court. Discuss comprehensive the whole law on the point. 1998
47. Which are the documents that requires compulsory registration and those the registration whereof is optional. 1998
48. What do you understand by: Administrator. Letters of administration. Intestate succession. Succession certificate. 1998
49. Define sale. How is it made? Discuss in detail giving the rights and liabilities of the vendor and the vendee. 1999
50. Define lease. How is it made? Discuss in detail giving the rights and liabilities of the lessor and the lessee. 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999.
51. Write notes on: Subrogation. Foreclosure. Tacking. Foreclose down. Equity of redemption. 1998, 1999, 1999
52. Discuss in detail the procedure to be adopted for acquisition for the companies. 1999
53. Which books are to be kept by the registration officer 1999
54. What is the remedy against the refusal to register a document? 1999
55. Define and discuss giving examples: administrator. Will. Codicil. Probate. Executor. 1999
56. What is lease? Briefly describe the essentials of lease of immovable property. 1999
57. Discuss the considerations, which are to be taken into account by the Court while determining the compensation to be awarded for the land acquired under the Act. 1997, 1999
Paper 5 – Islamic Personal Laws – Questions:
1. What changes were introduced in the law applicable to Muslim by the Shariat Act, 1937. 1994
2. What was the necessity for enacting the West Punjab Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act of 1948 & 1962. 1994, 1995, 1998.
3. By which law the estate of a convert to Islam is governed? Are his non- Muslim heirs entitled to inherit his estate? 1994
4. What do you understand by principle of representation in Muslim law of inheritance? To what extent it has been affected by the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961? 1994
5. How is a testamentary wakf completed? 1994
6. Is a Muslim widow entitled to retain possession of the property of her deceased husband till the payment of her dower? 1994
7. Under what circumstances a mother is not entitled to the custody of her minor children? 1994
8. How will you distribute the estate of Muslim among the following heirs: Husband, mother, son, brother, father, and daughter. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998.
9. What is death illness? What is the status of will made during death illness? 1994, 1997, 1998, 1998, 1999.
10. What are the three conditions for the validity if a gift? 1994
11. Write short notes on the following: Hiba-bil-iwaz. Hiba-ba-shart-ul-iwaz. Areeat. 1994.
12. What are the three classes of persons who are entitled to claim pre-emotion? 1994, 1999.
13. Is the husband liable to maintain the wife after the divorce? If so, for what period? 1994, 1998.
14. What is arbitration council under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961? What are its functions under the above law? 1994
15. Write short notes on any three of the following. Khula, Mutawalli, Iddat, Death Illness. 1995
16. Describe various modes of Talaq in Islamic Law. 1995, 1996, 1997.
17. Define gift and discuss the difference between gift and will. 1995, 1996.
18. Enumerate various grounds for the dissolution of marriage under the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939. 1995, 1997.
19. Who is a minor? Discuss the right of Hizanat of Muslim parents with regard to minors both males and females. 1995
20. What restrictions have been imposed on a Muslim male for contracting another marriage during the presence of an existing marriage under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. 1995, 1998.
21. What are the limits on testamentary powers of a Muslim? Under what circumstances Will in excess of 1/3rd can take effect. 1995
22. What is the impediment inheritance? Discuss. 1996
23. How polygamy has been regulated by the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1971. 1996
24. Write short notes on the following: Hazanat. Awl. Iman abu hanifa. Parentage. 1996.
25. State the matters to be considered by Court in appointment of guardian of a minor. 1996
26. What do you understand by dower? Is it consideration or gift? 1997
27. Can powers to divorce be delegated to wife? If so under what considerations. 1997
28. Who has got the prior right of custody of minor in case of dispute between father and mother? Discuss. 1997
29. Write short notes on the following: Radd. Khula. Imam Shafie. Bequest to heirs. 1997.
30. Is a specific form required for a valid Will under Islamic Law? Discuss. 1997
31. Discuss the status of deathbed gifts and acknowledgements. 1997
32. What is Waqf-Alal-Aulad? Discuss in detail. 1997
33. When does right of preemption accrued. Who can demand for it? 1997, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.
34. Under what circumstances a mother loses her right of custody of a minor. Discuss. 1997
35. Describe briefly Quran and Sunnah as primary sources of Islamic Law. 1997, 1998, 1999.
36. What is marriage? What do you understand by valid, irregular and void marriages? 1994, 1998.
37. Describe briefly the fundamentals of Islamic Law of Succession in the light of Holy Quran and Sunnah. 1998
38. Discuss briefly the Gift. Under what circumstances a donor can revoke a gift. 1994, 1998.
39. Write notes on the following. Mushaa. Waqf. Khiyarul Baloogh. Dower. Property. Will. Estate. Option of puberty. 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.
40. Ijtehad, has got an important status in Islamic law. Discuss it in detail. 1998
41. Define and distinguish between divorce and khula. Can the right of divorce be delegated to a third person? 1998, 1998.
42. Define preemption. When does this right arise and to whom is this right available. 1997, 1998.
43. Define and discuss Will. What are its essential ingredients? Can a Will be revoked. 1996, 1998.
44. State the matters to be considered by a Court in the appointment of a guardian of a minor. 1998.
45. Define Waqf and discuss its essentials. What are the valid objects of a Waqf? 1998
46. Write notes on the following. Iddat. Hazanat. Maintenance. Imam Shafie. 1998
47. Explain briefly the impediments to a valid marriage. What are Fasid and Batil marriages? What are their legal effects? 1999
48. What is prompt and deferred dower. What remedies is available to a wife if dower is not paid. 1999
49. What procedure has to be followed/adopted for divorcing a wife under the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961. 1999
50. What are the classes of heirs? How do they share? 1997, 1999.
51. What do you understand by the term Guardian as used in Guardians and Wards Act? Does it include a natural and a guardian for marriage of a ward? 1999
52. What is Waqf? How is a Waqf complete? Who can be appointed as a Mutawalli? 1994, 1999.
Paper 6 – International Law – Questions:
1. Define the term Private International Law, and state the difference between Private International Law and Public International Law. 1994, 1997.
2. State briefly in their order of sequence the various matters that may require attention by a Court in a case containing foreign element. 1994
3. Define and explain. Domicile of Origin. Domicile of Choice. RENVOL. 1994, 1994.
4. Where will Pakistani Courts exercise jurisdiction in matrimonial matters? 1994
5. Briefly state the situations in which the Paksitani Courts will exercise jurisdiction over absent defendants. 1994
6. Briefly state the common law principles regarding succession with foreign element. State Pakistani law in connection therewith. 1994
Which law will be applicable, in
8. Ask yourself intelligent questions about any aspect of Private International Law, which you have studied, discussed in your class and answer it. 1994
9. Discuss the modes and legal effect of recognition of Statues in International Law. 1995
10. Write a short note on stateless and refugees. 1995
11. What is the legal position of an individual in a State of which he is not a national? Discuss. 1995
12. Write a short note on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 in the context of present day world. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1995, 1995, 1997, 1999.
13. Discuss various methods of pacific or amicable settlements of International disputes under the U. N. Charter. 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998.
a short note on the
15. Discuss the legal nature and modes of Recognition of States, with particular reference to the difference between “De facto” and “De jure” recognition. 1995, 1998, 1999.
16. Write short notes explaining the basic principles established by the Law of the Sea Convention, 1982, concerning. The territorial water. Innocent passage. The contiguous Zone. The Exclusive Economic Zone. 1995, 1998.
17. Discuss main features of Territorial and diplomatic Asylum. Also list points of difference. 1995, 1997, 1998.
18. Discuss various non-judicial methods of resolving a dispute by peaceful means. Which method is preferable for you? 1995
19. What are the principle sources of international Law? Give your answer with reference to article 38 of the International Court of Justice. 1995
20. What are the various rules, which govern the application of international law by municipal Courts? Discuss fully. 1995, 1998.
21. What does a “Subject of international law” mean? Discuss as a State as a subject of International Law. 1995
22. What do you understand by “recognition of states” and “recognition of Government”? Explain the rules, which govern the recognition of insurgents. 1995, 1997.
23. Explain “Calvo clause”. What is its present day status? 1995, 1998.
24. Distinguish “territorial jurisdiction” from “extra territorial jurisdiction”. State the principles on the basis of which a state can exercise “extra territorial jurisdiction. 1995
25. What are the various modes for the acquisition and loss of nationality? 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999.
26. What are the circumstances under which a state can lawfully use force against another state? 1995
27. What are the legal effects of out-break of war between two or more states. 1995
28. Discuss fully the powers and functions of the United Nations General Assembly. 1995
29. Write a detailed note on the International Court of Justice. 1995
30. Some writers doubt whether International Law qualifies as law. What is your opinion? 1997, 1998, 1999.
31. Discuss the question whether International Law is exclusively concerned with the State. 1997, 1998.
32. Write short notes on. Regime of High Seas. Innocent Passage. Exclusive Economic Zone. 1997
33. How a Treaty is concluded. Explain the circumstances, which may render a Treaty invalid. Discuss within the context of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969. 1997
34. What is the status of UN Charter? A piece of legislation or what. Is this an appropriate time to review/change UN Charter? Your views (Legal) are required by a State frustrated by inefficiency of UN Organ. 1997, 1998.
35. Discuss various provisions of Geneva Convention on prisoners of war. 1997, 1998.
36. Write detailed note on. Jus Cogen. 1997
37. What is meant by “Relationship between international Law and Municipal Law? Explain it in the light of various theories expounded in this respect. 1997
38. The scope of International Law has widened to include individuals and non-state entities. Discuss. 1997, 1999.
39. Define “extradition”. What are the common rules of International Law, which govern extradition in the absence of an extradition treaty? 1997
40. What is intervention and when is it permitted under International Law. 1997, 1999.
41. Discuss the constitution, functions, and powers of the Security Council. 1997, 1999.
42. International Court of Justice does not have jurisdiction without the consent of the states. Discuss fully. 1997
43. What are principal sources of Public International Law? Your answer should be with reference to article 38 of the Statues of International. 1998
you agree with the defenses advanced by the accused in
45. How a Multilateral Treaty is concluded. What are various Rules for its interpretation? 1998
46. The veto power of the permanent members of the Security Council is inconsistent with the doctrine of sovereign equality of states. Do you agree with this proposition? 1998
47. The basis of International Law is human nature reason and justice. Discuss whether you agree or not. 1998
48. What tests are laid down by Starke to determine whether usage has turned into a custom of not. 1998
49. What are the privileges and immunities of diplomatic envoys/agents? 1998
50. Write short notes on. Territorial water. Regime of High Seas. Exclusive Economic Zone. 1997, 1998, 1999.
51. What do you understand by the State Servitude? Explain with reference to negative and positive servitude. 1998
a distinction between a neutral State and a
53. What is statelessness. How can it be remedied? 1999
54. Pirates are enemies of Mankind. Discuss law for Pirates in detail. 1999
55. Write short notes on. Extradition. 1999
56. Define a Treaty. What are the circumstances, which may terminate a treaty. What is ratification of a Treaty? 1997, 1999.
Paper 7 – Special & Local Laws – Questions:
1. Define the following. Assessment circle. Boundary marks. Defaulter. Estate. 1994
2. What do you know of record of rights? Discuss the documents, which are included in it. 1994, 1998.
3. What is a Review? Under what circumstances is this allowed? 1994
Discuss the relevant law regarding the
establishment of right of occupancy under the
5. What is the consideration, which are to be observed while awarding compensation for improvement made by the tenant on his tenancy? 1994
6. What remedy is prescribed by the act to a tenant wrongfully ejected from his tenancy? 1994
7. Discuss the salient features of the Land Revenue Act. 1995
8. Who is village officer? Write a detailed note about him. 1995
9. Fully elaborate the significance of the register of mutations. 1995
10. Discuss fully the procedure of disposal of questions of title, during partition of land. 1995
11. Fully discuss and explain the law of appeals. 1995
12. Define and explain: Rent. Tenant, landlord, improvement. 1995
13. Fully discuss the law pertaining to personal cultivation. 1995, 1997, 1999.
14. Define and explain. Agricultural Year. Arrears for Land Revenue. Holding. Survey Number. 1996
15. Explain in detail the mode of service of Summons. 1996
16. Under what circumstances can a Headman are removed. 1996.
17. Explain the process of Arrest and Detention of defaulter. 1996
18. Write a detailed note on Arbitration. 1996
19. Fully explain the law whereby the High Court has been given powers to decide questions as to jurisdiction. 1996
20. Explain the law relating to Extinction of Occupancy Tenancies. 1996
21. Fully explain “Owner of Land”, “Land Owner”, and “Land Lord”, so as to bring out clearly the distinction between them. Give illustration. 1995, 1997.
22. Define and explain. Defaulter. Land Revenues. Rent. Survey Mark. Tenancy. 1994, 1997, 1997.
23. Every inquiry, under the Land Revenue Act, shall be deemed to be a “Judicial Proceeding”. Comment, so as to bring out clearly the full implications of this provision of law. 1997
24. Explain in detail and describe fully that process which you consider to be the best for effecting recovery of arrears of land revenue. Give reasons for your preference. 1997, 1998, 1998.
25. How and in which cases can certain sums, other than rent, be deposited in the office of a Revenue Officer and how shall the Revenue Officer deal with such a deposit? 1996, 1997.
27. Fully explain the law and procedure with regard to the validation of proceedings had under mistake as to jurisdiction. 1997
28. Write a detailed note on Board of Revenue. 1997
29. Elaborate fully the powers of various Revenue Officers in regard to Contempt, resistance and the like. Give instances. 1997
30. Write a comprehensive note on the Rule of Primogeniture. 1997
31. What do you understand by the word Assessment? In which cases Special Assessments may be made. Explain each. 1997
32. Write a detailed comprehensive note on Revisional Jurisdiction. In revenue maters. 1997
33. What restrictions have been imposed on Ejectment? Discuss the rights of an ejected tenant in respect of crops and land prepared for sowing. 1994, 1997, 1998.
34. Define and explain. Land. Tenant. Village Cess. Jagirdar. 1997
35. Fully elaborate the causes and the procedure of division or appraisement of produce through the intervention of a Revenue Officer. 1997, 1998.
36. It is said that the Punjab Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1952, has brought about revolutionary changes in the Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887. Comment on this statement. 1997
37. Distinguish between General And Special Assessments. Under what circumstances are Special Assessments made. 1996, 1998.
38. Explain the procedure of Partition under the Land Revenue Act. 1998
39. Which matters can a Revenue Officer refer to Arbitration without the consent of the parties to a dispute before him? What are the essential contents of the Order of Reference in such a case? 1998, 1998, 1999.
40. Explain, in detail, what you understand by the word Improvement as laid down in the Tenancy Act. 1998, 1999.
41. Discuss, in detail, the grounds and the procedure for the Ejectment of Tenants for a Fixed Term. 1998, 1998.
42. Explain fully the procedure of Review as laid down in the Tenancy Act. 1998, 1999.
43. What are the main considerations, which have to be kept in view in making First Appointments of Village Headman? 1994, 1997, 1998.
44. How and on what occasion or occasions, a Mutation is affected. Does Mutation confer right of ownership? If not, what is its purpose? 1998
45. To what Authority of Court, can an aggrieved party have a recourse in order to have the wrong entries whether by an application or by a suit. Please give a detailed answer. 1998
46. In what cases can an estate or holding be sold for recovery of areas of land revenue and what are the restrictions provided by the Land Revenue Act in regard to such Sales. 1998
47. Explain the procedure, which a Revenue Officer shall follow in cases where a Question of Title is involved in Partition proceedings before him. Which of the Revenue Officers can settle such a question. 1998
48. What is rent? How can its commutation and alteration take place? Discuss. 1998
49. Enumerate and explain FOUR such matters as are within the Exclusive Jurisdiction of Revenue Officers acting as such. 1998
50. Define and explain the following. Assessment Circle. Land Lord. Arrears of Land Revenue. Boundary Marks. 1999
51. Explain briefly the processes for effecting the recovery of Land Revenue. 1999
52. Who may apply for partition of land? Are there some restrictions imposed on partition? 1999
53. Discuss the various classes of Revenue Officer and their duties. 1999
54. Distinguish between Appeal and Review under Land Revenue Act. 1999
55. Explain the respective rights and duties of tenant and landlord regarding payment of Government Dues and Rent. 1997, 1999.
1. Some writers doubt whether International Law qualifies as law. What is your opinion?
2. The basis of International Law is human nature, reason, and justice. Discus whether you agree or not?
3. Discus treaties as one of the sources of International Law. Can International Law survive without it?
4. Explain in details the main material principal sources of Public International Law. Your answer should be in line with the Article 38 of the Statute of International Court of Justice (ICJ).
5. The scope of International Law has widened to include individuals and non-state entities. Discus. (or) Discuss the question whether International Law is exclusively concerned with the states.
6. What is meant by “Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law”? Explain it in the light of various theories expounded in this respect.
7. To what extent can municipal courts apply International Law. Answer with reference to British and US practice.
8. Discuss the legal nature and modes of Recognition of State with particular reference to the difference between “De facto” and “De jure” Recognition.
9. What do you understand by “recognition of states” and “Recognition of Governments”? Explain the rules, which govern the recognition of insurgents and its legal effects.
10. Define territorial waters. State the extent to which a coastal state can exercise its jurisdiction over these waters.
11. Write a detailed note on Succession of States.
12. Define a Treaty. What are the circumstances, which may terminate a treaty? What is ratification of a Treaty?
13. How a multilateral treaty is concluded? What are various rules for its interpretation?
14. What is intervention and when it can be permitted in International Law?
15. What is statelessness? How can it be remedied?
16. Define “Nationality”. How is it acquired and lost?
17. Define “extradition”. What are the common rules of International Law, which govern extradition in the absence of an extradition treaty?
18. Discuss the constitution, functions, and powers of the Security Council of the UNO. Discuss its failure, if any.
19. Discuss fully the powers and function of the UN General Assembly.
20. Write a detailed note on the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
21. Write a short note on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. What is its present day status? Critically examine its legal character.
22. Discuss provisions of Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War.
23. Discuss some amicable means for the settlement of international disputes.
1. Equity acts in personam.
2. Equity looks into intent rather to form.
3. Who comes to equity must come with clean hands.
4. Where there are equal equities, law shall prevail.
5. Equity shall not suffer a wrong without remedy.
6. Who comes to equity must do equity.
7. Equity imputes an intention to fulfill an obligation.
1. S. 5.
2. S. 8 & 9.
3. Contract which may be enforced or not specifically. § 12 & 21.
4. Who can be compelled or not to perform contract specifically. § 23 & 24 and 27 & 28.
5. Against & to whom specific performance of contract may be enforced.
6. When specific performance of contact can be granted in part. § 13 & 17.
7. Rights & liabilities of vendee against vendor having imperfect title. S. 18.
8. What is declaration & its rules. S. 42.
9. What is injunctions, its kinds, and when granted and refused. S. 54 & 56.
10. Rules of cancellation of an instrument. S. 39.
1. What are trust & its kinds? Who it is created and when objects are lawful.
2. Right & duties of trustee.
3. Right & duties beneficiary.
4. Restrictions on rights & powers of trustee.
5. Procedure of appointment of new trustee. How trustee maybe discharged form his liabilities.
6. Short note on Extinction of trust, revocation of trust, and construction trust.
Transfer of Property Act:
1. Ostensible owner. S. 41.
3. Mortgage & its kinds.
4. Rights & duties of mortgagor & mortgagee.
5. Right & duties of mortgagee in possession. § 72 & 76.
6. Gift & it’s essential features. Rights of donor & donee. S. 122.
7. Short note on Redemption S. 60, foreclosure S. 57, charge S. 100, & subrogation S. 98.
1. S. 17 & 18.
2. Procedure of registration of an instrument which is presented for registration to Registry Officer.
3. Effects of refusal of registration of an instrument and remedy available to aggrieved party. § 42 & 43.
4. Procedure of appeal against decision of registration officer and powers of appellate Court.
5. Effects of non-registration of document.
1. What do mean succession certificate? Discuss rules regarding grant of succession certificate as laid down under Succession Act. § 371, 372, & 373.
2. What is procedure & effects of succession certificate? § 373, 381, & 382.
3. What are circumstances when succession certificate may be revoked & discuss the remedy available in case if revocation of certificate. § 383 & 384.
4. Important sections are 218, 222, 223, 224, 227, 232, & 236. Also sections 370 to 390 are important.
5. What do you mean letter of administration. What are its effects and who are persons to whom it is granted and to whom it is not granted. § 218, 220, & 236.
6. What is probate. What are its rule-regulating grant of probate & discuss its effects. § 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, & 227.
1. What do you mean acquisition? What are pre-requisites for acquiring the land under Land Acquisition Act? § 4 & 5.
2. Discuss the procedure of settlement and objections raised on land intended for acquisition. S. 11.
3. When reference to Court may be made regarding acquiring the land & what is procedure thereon. § 18 – 23.
4. Discuss the rule applicable as for acquisition of land for companies. § 38 – 42.
5. How payment of compensation may be made in case of land acquired under Land Acquisition Act. § 5, 23, 30 – 34.
6. Discuss the matters, which are to be considered in determining the compensation and what may be neglected. § 23 & 24.
1. Distinction between Bill of Exchange & Cheque.
2. Difference between Noting & Protest – particulars.
3. Define Promissory Note, Bill of Exchange, & Cheque.
4. Evidence relating Negotiable Instrument & what are rules.
5. What is Negotiable Instrument, special characteristics or essential features.
6. Holder & Holder in due course.
7. Discharge of maker, acceptor, & endorser.
8. How maturity of Negotiable Instrument is calculated.
Securities and Exchange Commission of
2. Saloman v Saloman case.
3. Memorandum of Association (MOA) & Articles of Association (AOA).
11. Winding up.
2. Grounds for establishing occupancy rights.
3. Respective rights of Landlord and Tenant to produce.
4. Rights and liabilities regarding rent and government dues.
5. Procedure of making division or appraisement of produce through referee. § 17 – 19.
6. Under what circumstances rent can be deposited with the Revenue Officer and what will be its effect. § 31 & 32.
7. On what grounds following Tenants can be ejected and what restrictions have been imposed on ejectment:
(1) Tenant from year to year.
(2) Tenant for fixed term.
(3) Occupancy Tenant.
8. Discuss the law relating to succession to right of occupancy.
9. Determination of compensation by Revenue Officer and Revenue Courts.
10. Applications and proceedings cognizable by Revenue Officer.
11. Revenue Courts and suits cognizable by them.
12. Appeal, Review, Revision.
13. Discuss the law relating to extinction of occupancy tenancies.
14. Explain the law relating to limits of holding for personal cultivation.
1. Bases of International Law or theories of International Law.
2. Material sources of International Law.
3. Municipal Law.
4. State Recognition.
5. State jurisdiction.
6. Succession to right & obligation – State.
7. Extradition, Asylum, & Human Rights.
8. Law of Sea – Short Note.
9. Law of Treaties & sources.
10. Disputes, hostile relationships, amicable sources.
11. Security Council.
13. International organizations – only UNO.
14. Subjects of International Law.